The 19th-20th Century South And Central American Trade

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Thu Sep 11, 2014 7:58 am

TRUMAN E. BAILEY

Calle Eduardo Habich, Miraflores, Peru

Truman Bailey from Portland, Oregon, was sent to Peru in 1942 by the Inter-American Development Commission at the invitation of the Peruvian Government to investigate and develop ancient craft techniques as the 'Peruvian Manual Industries Development Project'. He was assisted in his task by Sra. Grace V. de Escardo.


Examples of the marks and work of Truman Bailey:


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Member JayT wrote:

This is the mark of Truman Bailey, an American who helped to revive the Peruvian silver manufacturing industry in the post-WW II era. He incorporated pre-Columbian motifs in his work, as well as mid-century modernistic designs. The mark is a vertical B sitting on a horizontal T.

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Mon Sep 15, 2014 2:46 pm

MAPPIN & WEBB (BRAZIL) Ltd.

Rua Coronel Moreira Cesar, 100, Rio de Janeiro


MAPPIN & WEBB (BRAZIL) LTD.

Registered 1911. Took over the Brazilian business of Mappin & Webb (Ltd.) in jewelry, gold, silverware, cutlery, etc. An extensive business is carried on.

Capitalization.–Preference shares, £100,000 (cumulative, 6 per cent) ; ordinary shares, £15,000. The dividend on the preference shares is guaranteed until 1918 by Mappin & Webb (Ltd.). Preference shareholders may vote only under special circumstances.

Income accounts.–Not made public except to shareholders.

Directors.–W. J. Mappin, chairman; W. D. Barlow, W. T. Haddock, H. J. Mappin, S. A. Mappin, H. Portlock; secretary, J. T. Boyes. Office (London): 158-162 Oxford Street


Source: Special Agents Series - 1918

Interesting to note among the directors the name of W.D. Barlow, this is no doubt William Disney Barlow (see above post) who held the sole agency in Argentina for the products of Elkington & Co.Ltd. from 1908 to 1915.

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Fri Sep 19, 2014 1:49 pm

LACROISADE & REGIS

41, Cathedral Square (Parque de la Cathedral), Panama City


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Lacroisade & Regis - Panama City - 1908

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Sat Sep 20, 2014 4:03 am

ROBERT H. INGERSOLL & BROTHER

Buenos Aires


Death of Robert A. Piatt

Robert Arnold Piatt, manager of the South American branch office of Robt. H. Ingersoll & Bro., New York, died of pneumonia suddenly on Oct. 14, a few days after his return from Buenos Aires. Together with A. Kaltbrinner he had managed the concern's office in that city from July, 1916, to July, 1918.

Mr. Piatt was a nephew of R. H. and C. H. Ingersoll and a cousin of W. H. Ingersoll. He was a native of Lansing, Mich., a graduate of the University of Michigan and had formerly been the office manager of the company in New York and a salesman in Virginia previous to his going to South America.

The day of his funeral was to have been his wedding day. He was engaged to Miss Helen Caldwell, of New York, who was stricken with the same disease and was not expected to live, but ultimately regained her health.

The body was taken to Lansing, Mich., for burial.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 6th November 1918

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Sun Sep 21, 2014 1:55 pm

A listing of Jewellers and allied trades working in Panama City in 1908:

JEWELERS & WATCHMAKERS - (JOYERIA Y RELOJERIA)

Aldrete, Pedro, 312 Ninth St. Plaza de Herrera
Calorie, J. A., 284 Central Avenue
Claramunt, Salvador. 260 Central Avenue
De Diego, Julio F., 67 Sixth Street
Gloge, Roberto, 61 Central Avenue
Haak, Otto, 75 Central Avenue
Lacroisade & Regis. 41 Seventh Street
Marquis J. S., 7 4th of July Street
Misteli, Jose, 87 Central Avenue & 50 Eighth Street
Müller Oscar, 70 Central Avenue
Nunez, Emeterio, 54 West 13th Street
Ponce, Arturo, 292 Central Avenue
Ponce, Belardino, 252 Central Avenue
Whitbourne J. A., 365 Central Avenue
Panie, Francisco, 68 Fourth Street
Puertaz, H. Jose, 164 West 14th Street
Redondo, A..114 and 260 Central Avenue
White, A., 328 Central Avenue
Ybanez, Francisco, 232 Central Avenue
Yeaza, Pedro, 151, West 12th Street

Source: Canal Zone Pilot - Classified Business Directory of Panama City - 1908

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Tue Sep 23, 2014 2:25 pm

E. LACROISADE

77, Central Avenue, Panama City



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E. Lacroisade - Panama City - 1912

Perhaps to identified with the business of Lacroisade & Regis (see above post).

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Sat Sep 27, 2014 2:54 pm

A listing of Jewellers and allied trades working in Colon City, Panama in 1908:

JEWELERS & WATCHMAKERS - (JOYERIA Y RELOJERIA)

Beal, D. E., 116, Narino Avenue
Clarke, Arturo. 58, Santander Avenue
Domenico, Francisco, Colunge Street
Duncan, L. A,, 58, Paez Avenue
Gonzalez, Francisco, 2, Front Street
Kerr, J. L.. 31, Front Street
Lewis, M. B , 47, Bolivar Avenue.
Perrenoud, Henry, 76, Paez Avenue.
Ryfkogel, John, 76, Paez Avenue

Source: Canal Zone Pilot - Classified Business Directory of Colon City - 1908

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Tue Sep 30, 2014 5:30 am

United States Manufacturers Dominate Jewelry Gold and Silver Markets of Nicaragua

Washington, D. C, Oct. 29.–How much the manufacturing jewelers and silversmiths dominate the trade of Nicaragua is shown in the tables contained in a recent report made by the American Consul at Corinto, Andrew J. McConnico, to the Department of Commerce.

According to these figures, of the total manufactures of gold and silver imported in that country in 1917, amounting to $65,405, the imports from the United States amounted to $65,027, leaving but 378 for that of all other countries.

In jewelry, out of a total importation of $14,756, the amount from the United States was $13,329, and from all other countries, $1,427.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 30th October 1918

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Mon Oct 13, 2014 3:54 am

IMPORTANT POINTS ON THE JEWELERY TRADE IN SOUTH AMERICA

One of the most interesting recent meetings of the Good and Welfare Committee of the National Jewelers Board of Trade was that held Thursday morning at the rooms of the association, 15 Maiden Lane, New York, at which S. W. Rosenthal, the investigator appointed by the Government to report on the jewelry markets of Latin America, made a tentative report to the organization. Mr. Rosenthal's appointment by the Government followed action by the National Jewelers Board of Trade, which agreed to supplement the Government's compensation with enough to make it worth while getting a man who could make this investigation properly. Mr. Rosenthal’s application was endorsed by the Board, and the result of his work has vindicated his appointment and justified the extra expense incurred in having him make the investigation.

Mr. Rosenthal’s work in South American markets will be the subject of a series of reports that will be published by the Department of Commerce in the course of the next few months, but before going to Washington he made a preliminary report to the Board, and also sought to get the views of the members as to certain points to put up to the Department of Commerce in connection with the South American trade.

Mr. Rosenthal, who, as noted in THE JEWELERS’ CIRCULAR from time to time, has for some months studied the demand for jewelry lines, silver, silver-plate, clocks. watches, etc., in the West Indies, and in South and Latin America, made a complete tour of South America and the principal cities, and brought back with him information that will answer nearly every question that will come up by exporting houses wishing to get after the jewelry trade of the Latin American countries.

He brought back with him not only samples of the various goods required in the different sections of South America, but photographs of nearly all the lines supplied and complete catalogues and price lists of the French, German, Austrian and other firms that have had the bulk of this trade in the past. In addition, he brought back with him a list of the principal dealers in jewelry in the South American countries. with data as to their personnel, their standing, their credit and the particular lines in which they specialize.

At the meeting Thursday Mr. Rosenthal was formally introduced to the Good and Welfare Committee members by Vice-president Arthur Lorsch in the absence of Vicepresident Bowden, the chairman of the Good and Welfare Committee. Mr. Rosenthal said that he had just gotten back from South America and wanted to make a brief report to the Board before going to Washington; that he had a mass of information which he wanted to present before the committee. and asked that they take what steps they desired to have it made of use to the trade. The information was valuable only if it could be put to use.

He then gave a brief review of his trip to the various centers and cities in South America, first explaining about the list he had brought back of the retail jewelers of the various countries, and the credit information connected with them. He said that one of his most difficult tasks was to obtain this credit information because the jeweler in South America considers all such information as to his standing his own personal property and objects as much to giving it out as he would matters connected with his family affairs. Rosenthal had been able to obtain what he did in great part through the co-operation of the branches of the United States banks, and he had impressed on these institutions the value of having such information on their files because this would give a solid foundation on which to render credit of all kinds.

He told of the catalogs that he had obtained in South America from the various German, French, Austrian and other houses, and said that in some cases he had brought the catalogs running many years back. He also told very briefly of the samples of the various kinds of goods that are in the market, and said that with these samples, catalogs and price lists it was an easy matter for the American manufacturer to find out whether it would be profitable for him to go into that market.

The reports which Mr. Rosenthal said he had prepared for the Department of Commerce, and soon to be published, would contain (1) general information on credit conditions; (2) information on the economic conditions; (3) statistics of the imports of jewelry and other lines for the past five years, and (4) a general discussion as to the type of jewelry sold and the methods used in selling this jewelry.

The conditions in marketing jewelry in South America, he said, were entirely different from marketing them in this country. Here we had manufacturer, jobber and retailer, while there they have the direct importer. This importer may be in some cases a retail house or in some cases a distributing house. Some of the largest importers were purely retail houses.

He had tried to discuss in his reports the various methods of marketing as well as shipping and details as to packing, as to customs regulations, etc. These greatly differed in various places. For instance, the methods of packing and shipping for Venezuela would not do at all for Argentine or Brazil. and vice versa, and he gave examples of the different kinds of taxes imposed and duties levied which required different methods of packing–in some places the duties being levied on the gross weight, others upon the net weight.

In his work he had endeavored to take up each article separately. His report on chains alone went into details as to the different kind of chains used-Waldemar, Dickens chain, and the different types of links, etc., and the same information was obtained for other lines, including silver and silver-plated ware.

The reports which will be published will be illustrated fully, because most of the articles that could not be clearly described were photographed.

Mr. Rosentthal touched upon certain handicaps that the manufacturer has, as for instance the custom in Cuba and other places of referring to “filled" goods as Ore Americana (i. e.. American gold), which has identified the American manufacturer with "filled” and not solid gold goods.

In answer to the question whether there was an opportunity for the American jewelry manufacturer in Latin America, he said "decidedly yes, with some modifications."

For instance, our gold filled articles are very much better, in fact, superior in every way to those of the German and Austrian. They will be better liked, and, if sold under proper conditions, will have a big advantage over competitors. But in electroplated gold there is a question as to whether the German and Austrian lines will come back. What they will do is an unknown quantity, but if they manufacture the goods and can get them there they will have advantages over our manufacturers.

Even before the war, said Mr. Rosenthal, German manufacturers had recognized the superiority of American gold-filled wares and had even bought gold-filled articles themselves in this country to sell in South America.

On solid gold goods, he said, we face a peculiar situation. The South American trade recognizes the 18 karat quality. Anything 18 karat is considered pure or legal gold. but anything less is considered low grade gold, and our 14 karat would be classified the same as with the 13 karat, which they want in the low-grade wares. The 18 karat quality has the largest sale in the fine trade, and particularly in gem set articles. In Cuba and Chili 14 karat gold is sold to some extent, but in all other countries 12 karat gold is in demand in the low-grade line.

He spoke a bit about patterns, saying that the South American, as a rule, is not fond of plain gold or the simple geometrical designs common in American wares. The natives demand designs of the most elaborate character, and these the Germans have been very careful to get out. In the Argentine, he said, particularly among the Italian emigrants and among other workers the Italian patterns go very well, but the Germans have even beat the Italians in their own designs by copying the designs and elaborating on them and making them slightly more artistic.

A large amount of American goods can be sold today, he said. if the quality and designs are adjusted to meet the market conditions.

Speaking of terms, he said that much had been said about the different terms required by South America, but in the end the question will simmer down to a condition not much different from that existing here, namely, season settlements. He recommended 90-day sight draft without interest, and said that the American manufacturer can discount these drafts. The one advantage of this trade draft in season settlements. was that the orders were for an entire season or for a year, in most cases being for very large quantities of a single number. sometimes grosses at a time.

Mr. Rosenthal answered a number of questions as to the way the Germans did business, and said that often a manufacturer did business with the agent abroad, and the agent arranged for the terms in South America, the banks practically carrying the credit.

Mr. Rosenthal made a number of suggestions based on what the Germans had done. He said the German manufacturers had sent to South America trade papers published in German and Spanish telling of the German jewelry trade. They had paid for these papers for the sake of the advertising they had given to German wares. He told of the co-operation among German manufacturers and the Government, and said that with co-operation here we would have little difficulty in getting into the markets strongly except, perhaps. in the fine platinum goods which he thought were very strongly in French hands today.

He urged that the trade establish a place where the South American buyer can come up and make his headquarters and get full information that he desires in purchasing American goods. where the Latin-American can come and feel at home and know that he is in safe hands. He said that a large number of buyers from South America come up to agents in other lines who know nothing about the jewelry trade, and when they want to make purchases of jewelry they are referred to retailers and wholesalers and not to the manufacturers or headquarters. He cited a number of instances of this kind, and said that these people go back without any knowledge of the ramification of the industry that we have in this country.

He also suggested that a central bureau be established where translations could be made quickly for correspondence to and from South America, and also urged that the jewelry trade do everything to get publicity in South American papers along lines that will show what great jewelry centers we have here in Newark, Providence and other cities.

Mr. Rosenthal’s report was listened to with the deepest attention. and he was questioned in detail as to some of the points by the committeemen present. Some of the committeemen brought up matters which they wished him to take up with the Department of Commerce at Washington. such as the necessity of establishing parcel post relations with Chile and doing something to put the American manufacturer on a par with those of other countries who sell in that market.

Mr. Rosenthal explained the events which led up to the present conditions, but said that he would take up the request, and also the request that our postal authorities be properly instructed as to what packages can he received by parcel post to various countries and not refuse packages which prove later to be acceptable in the country to which they were addressed.

It was decided by the committee that the information obtained by Mr. Rosenthal should be given to the trade as a whole at a mass meeting to be held in the near future, at which Mr. Rosenthal's facts, together with his exhibits and catalogs, should be put before all manufacturers interested.

Trade Commissioner Rosenthal has prepared a brief review for the National Jewelers’ Board of Trade of his work. It follows:

Latin-America presents an excellent field for jewelry and silverware manufacture interested in extending their trade as there is general prosperity in the 21 republics which comprize it. This prosperity, he says. is mainly the result of the high prices which they have been receiving for their native products.

In normal times these markets have been supplied with jewelry and silverware by Europe, largely by Germany, but during the past four years very little has been shipped by France and England, and nothing by Germany. Stocks are therefore practically exhausted, and the South American jeweler is looking for sources where he can replenish his stock. On account of the war German manufacturers have lost the goodwill of this trade while American manufacturers have gained it.

Latin-Americans are fastidious dressers, are fond of jewelry and lavish in their expenditures for it. Even the casual observer remarks that much more jewelry is worn in these countries than in the United States.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 7th May 1919

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Tue Oct 21, 2014 10:34 am

BELARDINO PONCE C.

252, Central Avenue, Panama City


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Belardino Ponce C. - Panama City - 1908


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Belardino Ponce C. - Panama City - 1908

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Re: The 20th Century South American Trade

Postby dognose » Thu Oct 23, 2014 4:37 am

SOUTH AMERICAN TRADE

Trade Commissioner S. W. Rosenthal in Conference with Members of Foreign Trade Club, Chicago

Chicago, July 30.–S. W. Rosenthal, who recently concluded an investigation of' South American markets for jewelry and silverware, was in conference last week with members of the Foreign Trade Club of this city. Mr. Rosenthal has made a detailed study of opportunities for the sale of American goods in Latin America. This market has in the past been largely controlled by European manufacturers, but during the war American goods have been introduced there with much success. Mr. Rosenthal is prepared to give expert advice to manufacturing jewelers and silversmiths who wish to retain and develop this trade.

The rich South Americans are willing to pay high prices for jewelry, but they demand quality, and are filled with contempt for anything which resembles substitution. Much of the jewelry bought by the better classes in South America in the past has come from Paris, and many of them, in their shopping tours to the French capital, have bought the best the shops afforded. During the war, of course, the people of the country turned to the United States as a main source of supply on jewelry, silverware, and many other articles. There is no good reason, Mr. Rosenthal believes, why the manufacturing jewelers and silversmiths of this country cannot capture the rich trade of Latin America.

With reference to advertising, there are many good mediums in the South American countries, especially newspapers and magazines. The people are not accustomed to buying through advertising as much as they are in this country, and the appeal is somewhat limited, in certain districts, because only a portion of the population is literate. Quite a few of the business concerns in South America are now using American methods in advertising and business building, and the public is gradually falling into line. While the European concerns are still in on the ground floor,, they do not understand advertising methods as Americans know them, and cannot hold their own in a campaign of this sort. Throughout South America, according to Mr. Rosenthal, there is much goodwill toward the United States and a general bewilderment as to why United States merchants do not make a stronger effort to get their business.


Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 6th August 1919

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Tue Nov 18, 2014 6:17 am

BRITISH HONDURAS


G. R. Stevens, Canadian Trade Commissioner, in a report concerning trade opportunities in British Honduras, says: "Jewelry imports are so small as to be negligible. The British Honduranian miss or madam does not load herself with adornments in the fashion of the other West Indies. A certain amount of first-class jewelry business is done, largely of a mail-order nature, with London and New York. There are no jewelry shops in the colony, and the stationers show a few cases of more or less standard articles. Some bijouterie business is done, but rather more in bric-a-brac and domestic decorations of a cheap nature. This trade is too indeterminate for detailed comment. Ecclesiastical ornaments and services constitute the largest import of this class, and a considerable supply of shrines, scapulars, crucifixes, and similar articles are bought in New Orleans."

Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 1st November 1922

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Thu Dec 18, 2014 5:50 am

D. WARREN & SONS

Honduras


D. Warren & Sons, Honduras, are in the market for large purchases to meet the demands of the jewelry business in Central America. The representative of the firm says that he finds goods as cheap in this market as any in the country and that the merchants give the utmost satisfaction.

Source: The Jewelers' Circular - 30th November 1921

(The above refers to a buying trip to New Orleans)

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Thu Dec 25, 2014 2:18 pm

JEWELLERY IN BRAZIL

There seems to be an opportunity, says the American Consul General at Rio de Janeiro, for manufacturing jewellers to develop considerable trade in Brazil, a field at present served all but exclusively by German and French houses. One or two American houses have made an effort to get into the trade, and seem to have had very fair success. In 1906, the last year for which figures are available, Brazil imported about $250,000 worth of gold jewellery and $193,000 of silver jewellery, these amounts being in addition to items in which copper was the chief constituent part, christofle, and plated ware of different sorts other than jewellery. Of the imports of gold jewellery and jewellery classed as such, Germany sent about 58 per cent, France about 35 per cent. In silver jewellery Germany had about two-thirds of the trade, France about one-fourth, with the small balance scattered. During 1907 several representatives of American houses came into the trade and reported that they had considerable success, especially in the line of cheap jewellery. Later figures, therefore, are likely to show considerable returns from the United States, although the bulk of the trade is still where it has been for a good many years, as indicated. It is difficult to give a definite idea of the customs and other situation, for the. quality of goods varies so much that generalizations are likely to mislead. Styles are in general practically the same as those obtaining in the less expensive goods in the United States. There is a natural leaning in all South America in such matters to French styles and ideas. Whether it can be said that the trade will recognize quality in goods depends altogether upon whether or not the goods are properly presented. There are comparatively few lines of filled goods in vogue in Brazil at present, but probably this is a matter of price more than anything else. The goods ought to be presented in no other way than by a direct representative. A manufacturer's agent may sometimes be in a position to get in touch with the trade; but work through cataloguing or even through export commission houses will likely be thrown away. Credits as a rule are liberal. Terms vary considerably, but six months' time with interest from the date of the invoice is reported as a common provision. It is unsafe to quote prices now prevailing, in view of the wide variation in the quality of goods.


Source: The Chamber of Commerce Journal - June 1908

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Wed Jan 14, 2015 3:38 pm

CASTRO ARAUJO & Co.

151-153, Avenida Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro


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Castro Araujo & Co. - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Sun Jan 18, 2015 8:51 am

GREGORY & SHEEHAN

Rua da Alfandega 65-Sob., Rio de Janeiro


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Gregory & Sheehan - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

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Gregory & Sheehan - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

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Gregory & Sheehan - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

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Gregory & Sheehan - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

Late of Mappin & Webb.

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Tue Jan 20, 2015 2:32 pm

GIESE & SÁ

Rua do Ouvidor 126, Rio de Janeiro


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Giese & Sá - Rio de Janeiro - 1920

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Giese & Sá - Rio de Janeiro - 1920

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Giese & Sá - Rio de Janeiro - 1922

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Thu Jan 22, 2015 11:20 am

BARBOSA & MELLO

Rua Buenos Aires 154, Rio de Janeiro


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Barbosa & Mello - Rio de Janeiro -1920

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Fri Jan 23, 2015 3:45 pm

ISIDORO MARX

Rua do Ouvidor 138, Rio de Janeiro


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Isidoro Marx - Rio de Janeiro - 1920

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Re: The 20th Century South And Central American Trade

Postby dognose » Fri Feb 06, 2015 10:35 am

ELECTROPLATING IN SOUTH AMERICA

The Experiences Of An American Electroplater In Several Shops In Buenos Aires Written For The Metal Industry

By Harry Greene


This is the letter which is mentioned in our correspondence columns in this issue. Mr. Greene is having most interesting and valuable experiences, and his observations are worth noting not only by electroplaters, but by manufacturers and supply houses.–Ed.


Out for a job, naturally, I was refused at some places as no help was wanted, but finally landed at one place which was in need of a "dorador," a gold plater. I was shown the plating room which was merely a small room in which were a few small tanks and enameled pots of about two gallons size. The enameled pots as he explained me were for such solutions to be used hot, and in this particular case for gold solutions. He also added that the reason for plating from an enameled pot was because it was so handy to heat as it could be easily put on the gas stove and heated. The price of gas is high here, since the price of coal is $36 gold, the gas being a product of the coal. Nearly all solutions are run cold, probably for that reason; to run a boiler for steam would also be a great expense. You can picture the difficulty of being deprived of such a necessary feature as steam heat, but still they have means of overcoming part of this obstacle.

Now returning to where I left off, I can say that the whole arrangement was odd, taking into account the dynamo, sand blast, and the drying of work in cold sawdust. The sand blast operated by hand, which will give an idea what a slow process it is, taking into account the large pieces to be sand blasted.

At the above mentioned place I arranged to appear the next morning, but it seemed to me that this place was not the one to suit my purpose as I was able to see all I wanted during the time I spent there. The shop was very small, but I accepted the job, at the same time thinking of locating a big shop which I had on my list.

The next place, Joselowich Bros. & Co., 2570 Sarmiento Street, looked to me more progressive. I applied for a job, which at first was refused, as no help was wanted, but on learning that I was a North American, their curiosity was aroused to learn how plating was done in the States, and after a conversation, learning of my experience in plating, I was hired to appear the next morning.

Now having two positions on hand I decided to take the latter as it seemed to be the more advanced factory, employing some 75 hands, engaged in manufacturing brass beds and articles such as sugar bowls, bread trays, serving trays, barbers' supplies, such as shaving cups, perfume sprayers, and many other articles used here in barber shops. Then again this factory makes store display fixtures made of brass and articles of special types too numerous to mention.

On time the next morning I was there ready for work. All the "Officiales" places occupied, that is, those doing the plating, I was put to do the scouring, but I did not object as it did not matter to me whether I was classed as an "Official" so everything went along smoothly, as it looked like the place I wanted.

I shall now give you a description of the factory, the plating department and the handling of the work. I regret very much to say that my scheme of taking snapshots of the different departments of the factory did not prove a success after a hard try to take some. The firm was considerate enough to permit me to take photographs of the factory, but on account of being dark inside and not having a suitable camera for the purpose, they were failures. I did take some, but the pictures did not show enough to give a fair idea, so I shall try to describe it on paper as best I can.

The factory occupies one and half stories running about 250 feet deep, and 75 feet wide inside, two-thirds of it being used for workshop and the other third for the buffing and plating departments. In the workshop I have noticed much of the work being done by hand, which to my judgment could be eliminated and performed in less time and better results by modern machinery, but as it is not in my line and being unable to describe my ideas thoroughly, I shall not go into details, but shall go on describing the buffing and plating ends. In the buffing room there are employed 12 men, all occupied in different operations, such as surfacing, cutting down, buffing, coloring and glossing. The conveniences are far from modern; dirt, polishing material and dust fly all over. There is no such thing as suction to take up the waste from the wheels and polishing compound. It seems that the health of the operators is very little thought of, and then again the operators themselves do not seem to bother much. Well, I don't think they have ever seen things any better.

The plating room is divided in two sections with a wall between. One side is used for a pickling, acid dipping and cleaning room, while the other is where the plating tanks are installed. The former is an awful sight. In the first place there is no suction fan to take away the fumes from the acid, so they remain in the room until they find their way up to the skylight, which is located in the centre. Imagine the accommodations! None of the acid tanks are big enough for a quarter of the size of the pieces treated in them. In case the article is too large to be immersed, the acid is poured over it by means of an enameled dipper. Sure enough it is very difficult and the results are very poor in comparison with what they would be under modern improvements. Then again no tanks for rinsing are directly connected with the sewer, so that whatever is in excess runs over the top on the floor, until it finds its way into the spout located in the centre of the floor. The workers are constantly in the midst of it. The plater is subjected to the wet and acid floor and the bad acid fumes all day long.

Now as to the plating end of it there is more to tell, but first I will mention what solutions are used and capacity.

Nickel Solution, 500 gallons.
Nickel Solution,100 gallons.
Brass Solution, 150 gallons.
Copper-Cyanide Solutions, 50 gallons.
Silver Solution, 200 gallons.
Gold Solution, 10 gallons.

In all the above baths, anodes are used with reference to the solution except the silver bath, in which platinum anodes are employed, drawing constantly from the bath, which is replenished when it is judged to be low in metal. The brass and copper are run cold. A silver strike is used before transfering to the plating bath, platinum anodes being used there also.

After they are finished in the buffing room the articles are brought into the plating department where they are flashed through a potash solution, because they believe that all the potash is for is to soften the grease.

The next operation is to remove the grease with the brush and pumice or lime. Every article from the smallest to the largest is scoured. An electric cleaner would be a handy thing here. After a thorough scouring, spending much time and energy it is then plated. Not much pains are taken to obtain the brightest deposit possible, because it is figured that if the article is burned on the edges or blurry or stained or any such thing, the glosser will take care of same. The above is in reference to nickel, brass, copper plating or any other finish. Then again small articles are wired up for plating, which could easily be plated in modern barrels, increasing the output, and lowering the cost, but that is absolutely unknown here. I took the pains to explain to the foreman the advantage of an "electric cleaner," plating barrels and other means of producing better finish, increased production and much lower cost in the best Spanish I could, also by the aid of photographs of your journal The Metal Industry, but I impressed him little as he could not see how the features could work as I stated. Only a practical demonstration could possibly obtain some good results, and, of course, of the above I had none at hand. It might have been easy enough to arrange a bath to remove the grease by the electric current, but here again I was at a stand still on account of the lack of heat and sufficient electricity, as the dynamos at hand could not produce the desired results. On account of not having means to demonstrate my ideas practically I could make no headway.

Now as to the labor question. That is far from equal to the States. The wages are low, when one considers that nearly everything necessary to life is about equal to that in the States. This has reference to the metal and plating trades, but I have heard that the same is true of other industries as well. The reason for this I may say is because the supply is greater than the demand. Foreman platers receive from five to seven pesos, paper money a day, which is less than half of the value of gold, while every commodity bought is priced equal to gold money. The above may be interesting to you as a matter of information, and I have purposely dwelt on it. Also I mean to bring out a more interesting feature, that is, why the manufacturers or job platers have not taken pains to search for modern equipment improvements. The labor is cheap and plentiful. It concerns them very little how long it may take to do a certain operation, and again how many operations can be eliminated, and still obtain the same results. Because of the cheapness of labor, the manufacturer is able to put his article on the market no matter what it may cost to produce and still be able to compete with foreign made goods of the specified articles.

All of the above is true of the present, but the times are changing gradually. The strikes which occurred here lately are a sure sign that the old system can not hold its ground very much longer, and by that I mean to say that sooner or later the proprietors will have to find ways and means to place their products on the market at the same cost as the foreign manufacturer, with his modern improvements and speed of production.

There is no doubt that the United States had made the most progress in the plating industry and automatic machinery for it. The science and machinery of the above can not only be very well utilized here, but it is badly needed. I am saying this because I am convinced that it is so.

Although everything in the manufacturing line may be in its infancy, yet it is necessary to look at the growth of Argentine. Only a matter of some years and you will find the Argentine Republic among the foremost nations. Because of this I believe that there are open channels for American chemicals, manufactures and modern improvement in plating. Speaking of chemicals reminds me of some American chemicals already here; those of the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works of St. Louis, Mo. Some manufacturers as you can see have already established trade here, and I say that there are plenty of opportunities for many others. The field is big and growing.

Now going back to where I left off in regard to my "job" at the Joselowich Bros. & Co. I stayed there 3 weeks. I would probably have stayed a little longer as I wanted to ask permission to take photos of the factory again, but the condition of always being in a puddle of water, as the floor was constantly, drove me away. However, during all the time I was there I made a study of everything possible. The working hours are very convenient, from 7.30-11.30 A. M. and from 1.30 to 5.30 P. M., having two hours for dinner, which is the usual custom everywhere. It is convenient in this respect, that no matter how far any one may live, he or she may enjoy a home meal and a little rest.

The next job was at Paulucci Bros., 1230 Corrientos St., also Buenos Aires. I am writing this letter while being employed there. In this place the conditions are about the same; in some respects better and in others worse. There is much to be improved, and rearranged, but here I find the same obstacle as I have already mentioned; a practical demonstration is the only convincing power to obtain the desired results, and on account of not having the means to accomplish it, I am merely looking things over. A great factor in the chemical line here would be sodium cyanide, on account of the high price of potassium cyanide, although much lower than in the States, and for that reason the brass, copper and other baths do not get all which is necessary to obtain a good bright deposit. I frequently found the anodes "green" for lack of cyanide. I explained to the owner one day that cyanide was necessary to add to the bath, because of the anodes being corroded and the high resistance in the bath did not allow sufficient current to flow through, and, of course, for that reason the work came out smutty and dull, which made it necessary to scratch brush afterwards. This could be easily avoided by just adding cyanide, but the answer I received was that cyanide was too high and could not be afforded. Of course it would be an expense to add potassium cyanide at the present prevailing prices yet cheaper than to employ extra scratch brushers. At the same time "sodium cyanide" is so much cheaper that in some cases, as it would be in this case, it would find itself received with open arms. I inquired whether any was for sale anywhere, but I was told that there was not; moreover they did not know of any such chemical as "sodium cyanide." I could mention a whole page or more of articles in the chemical line which are needed, but suffice it to say that such is the case. I just happened to mention "sodium cyanide," because I know what an important factor that is in plating.

The feeling of gratitude to The Metal Industry for benefits I have derived prompted me to write this letter; also the fact that American chemical manufacturers, will become aware of the fact that there are opportunities for them in the South American republics. It must be borne in mind however that "new country, new customs," and they must be studied to achieve success. Experts in the line whatever it may be, and literature, in Spanish describing the use of articles are absolutely essential; of course, not overlooking the important fact that the expert must know the language thoroughly. Without the latter one is positively lost.


Source: The Metal Industry - February 1920

Trev.


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