Dutch silver original maker's mark project

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oel
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Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Dutch silver original maker's mark project.

Ref:
Elias Voet, Jr., Nederlands Goud- & Zilvermerken,
Karel A. Citroen, Dutch Goldsmiths' and Silversmiths' Marks and Names prior to 1812,
Karel A. Citroen, Amsterdamse Zilversmeden en hun merken.
L.B. Gans goud-en zilvermerken van Voet
World Hallmarks Europe 19th to 21st centuries
Waarborgholland, ˜Netherlands' Responsibility Marks since 1797
Janjaap Luijt, Het zilver Lexicon
Valse Zilvermerken in Nederland K.A. Citroen


Year letters of the Netherlands as of 1814
http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=32028

Firma Dahlia Amsterdam

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Maker's mark D S with a dahlia in the middle for : C. Schoorl & J.A. Dal / J. G. Sauveplanne & F. Hemelrijk, all also known as the firm Dahlia, city of Amsterdam, registered 1920-1958.
Minerva head with the regional assay office letter A for Amsterdam. The date letter D is for 1938.
The marks used by the firm Dahlia:
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Fa.(Firm) Moerkerk & Co
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M+C in oval for; Fa.(Firm) Moerkerk & Co also known as Th. & P. Moerkerk, Haarlem mark used 1923/1928

B. W van Eldik & A.F. van der Scheer also known as Hollandia Zilversmeden, Zutphen

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BWE conjoined monogram in (double) oval for; B. W van Eldik & A.F. van der Scheer also known as Hollandia Zilversmeden, Zutphen mark used 1917/1950
Silversmith Company in Zutphen, founded in 1917 by Bernardus Warnerus van Eldik, decendant of a Zutphen family of silversmiths. The Hollandia Zilversmederij maker's mark BWE in one or two ovals. Hollandia produced a wide range of silverware, mainly in old Dutch style, ranging from teaspoons to bread baskets. The factory closed its doors in 1950

Zaanlandse Zilversmederijen n.v./b.v.

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A hammer between two Z for;Zaanlandse Zilversmederijen n.v./b.v., Haarlem & Amsterdam mark used 1920/1990
Zaanlandse Zilversmederij with outlets/workshops/factories in Amsterdam and later in Haarlem. They were famous for silver with Old Dutch scenes and silverware copies of older famous styles. Zaanlandse founded in 1875 by Gerardus Schoorl(1848-1915) in Zaandijk. Around the turn of the 19th century Antique Dutch silver was in high demand and Gerardus Schoorl became an active supplier. Zaanlandse Zilversmederij became famous for Old Dutch style silverware and turned into a family owned business. The Zaanlandse Zilversmederij 's factory closed its doors in 1973 and the company ceased to exist in 1990. Also used maker's mark; ZZ in a double square shield with cut corners used 1916-1920
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For more please see;
http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic ... 118#p60118"

Gerardus Schoorl
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G7S; Gerardus Schoorl registered in the cities of Zaandijk/Amsterdam & Haarlem date registered 1875/1914

C.A. Stout
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CS 3 (in rolling pin shaped frame) for; C.A. Stout, Rotterdam mark used 1961/2002. Lion Passant II for silver 835 fineness. Assay office mark with the letter D in its helmet for regional assay office of Rotterdam. Date letter S for 1978
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

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The famous family Gerritsen, silversmiths and factory founders history

In 1866, Johannes Albertus Adolf Gerritsen(1840-1925) founded his jewelery company in Amsterdam, which in 1903 was converted into the N.V. Nederlandsche Fabriek voor Gouden en Zilveren Werken voorheen J.J.A.Gerritsen/ N.V.Dutch Factory for Gold and Silver Works formerly J.J.A.Gerritsen.
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Maker's mark G.Z. for; Johannes Albertus Adolf Gerritsen, this particular mark registered in the cities of Amsterdam and Zeist 1906/?1908.
His sons Johannes Albertus (Albert) (1874-1946) and Marius Johannes (1882-1954) also worked in the factory. Since c. 1895 the company was established at the Looiersgracht in Amsterdam; in 1904 it moved to Zeist (Karpervijver). The two brothers Albert and Marius Gerritsen formed the management. Mark used GZ in rectangle for Ned. Fabriek van Gouden en Zilveren Werken (previous know as J.A.A. Gerritsen), used ? 1908-? 1924.
In 1909 Marius left his his father's factory. In 1925 the management of the N.V. Dutch Factory for Gold and Silver Works was expanded and the name was changed to; N.V. (from 1926 Koninklijke/ Royal) Nederlandse Fabriek voor Gouden en Zilveren Werken Gerritsen en Van Kempen/ Dutch Factory for Gold and Silver Works Gerritsen and Van Kempen. In 1960 this factory merged with the company Begeer from Voorschoten and became the name N.V. Koninklijke Nederlandse Fabrieken van Gouden en Zilveren Werken Van Kempen en Begeer/ N.V. Royal Dutch Factories of Gold and Silver Works Van Kempen and Begeer

N.V. Nederlandsche Fabriek voor Gouden en Zilveren Werken voorheen J.J.A.Gerritsen/ N.V.Dutch Factory for Gold and Silver Works formerly J.J.A.Gerritsen.
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Maker's mark/factory mark Gz.(conjoined); N.V. Nederlandsche Fabriek voor Gouden en Zilveren Werken voorheen J.J.A.Gerritsen, this particular maker's mark used ?1908-?1924
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N.B. In 1910, Marius Johannes Gerritsen founded the Eerste Nederlandse Fabriek van Nieuw-Zilverwerken/ First Dutch Factory of New-Silver Works, the later Gero. In 1922, Marius Johannes Gerritsen, being honorably dismissed as technical director after refusing to sign an annual report that he said gave an incorrect picture of the factory left, and started a new company, de N.V. De Nederlandse Metaalwarenfabriek/ the N.V. The Dutch Metalwork Factory, later called Sola.


The Gero factory in the city of Zeist, founded 21 0ktober 1912
Gero short for Gerritsen & Co

Founded under the name; Eerste Nederlandsche Fabriek van Nieuw Zilverwerken, formerly known in 1910 under the company name; MJ Gerritsen & Co., has become a household name in the Netherlands, which stands for virtue and quality.
The Gero factory was founded by Marius Johannes Gerritsen (1882-1954) which in 1909 left his his father's factory to start his own business, along with his brother in law and business partner Julius ter Beek (1888-1967). Marius Gerritsen together with his brother in law Henri Simonis became the first directors. As the result of a conflict about the balance in 1921, between Marius Gerritsen and H.Simonis his brother in law and as such also between Marius Gerritsen’s father, Marius was granted a honorable discharge in 1922. After he left Gero Marius Gerritsen founded Gerrowé, later renamed Sola.
Although Gero was hit by the impact of the First World War it managed to introduce various new collections made in Gerozilver and Gero-alpacca. Throughout its existence the Gero factory used a large number of different alloys. The Gero factory made its products in 'New-silver', also called Alpacca and in a silver plated white metal called Gerozilver. However the spoons and forks made out of Alpacca, a white coloured alloy of roughly 60%copper, 20% nickel, 20% zinc & 5% tin, discoloured rapidly and a layer of chromium was applied over the Alpacca and called Gromalca . In addition Gero made products in pewter, called Gero-tin. The name Gerozilver caused confusion and in 1952 New Hallmark rules forced Gero to change the name into Gero Zilvium

Worldwide recognition
In the early years the company flourished had no competition, the first company to produce quality cutlery for a cheap price. In 1922, a Gero factory was opened in Copenhagen, Denmark to produce for the Scandinavian market. Sales offices were opened in England, Belgium and Germany and the Dutch East Indies and South America were important markets. The Gero factory grew in those years into a well-functioning company. The 12.5 year anniversary of the factory was celebrated in 1925 with the slogan "Gero spans de Kroon" and in the same year the factory name of; Eerste Nederlandsche Fabriek van Nieuw Zilverwerken, voorheen M.J. Gerritsen & Co. Was changed in; Gerofabriek, Fabriek van Nieuw Zilverwerken (Gerofactory, Factory of New Silverworks)

In 1929 the Gero factory, like many other companies, had to deal with the consequences of the Stock Market Crash in America. As a result in 1931, the factory in Copenhagen was closed. In order to meet the demand for cheaper cutlery Gero Zilmeta was introduced, a stainless steel product which required no maintenance and in addition, it was highly suitable for the manufacture of pans, bowls and serving utensils. The Alpacca and Gromalca disappeared from the range of products and replaced by stainless steel Gero Zilmeta.
Besides cutlery soon also other utensils were made as dinnerware, napkin rings, finger bowls, bread baskets and candlesticks.
In the early years the Gero factory had no own designers. In 1923 the Gero factory teamed up with the famous Dutch decorative artist Chris van der Hoef (CJH).
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From 1927 products designed by Georg Nilsson (GN) in Copenhagen were also made by Gero in Zeist. And after the closure of the Gero factory in Copenhagen in 1933, Georg Nilsson works in the Gero factory in Zeist Holland until his retirement in 1957. In the 1950ties Georg Nilsson designed child's cutlery Fairy tale sets. See for an example;
http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic ... 45#p147745
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Georg Nilsson has been responsible for most of the designs made by Gero, the characteristic; animal motifs, flower and leave motives, hammered surface but also sleek & functional designs.
Jan Eisenloeffel JE in circle
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In 1929 Gero introduced the cutlery set model nr. 70, designed by Jan Eisenloeffel, a great commercial success, and still made in 1954. Gero claimed the Cutlery set model nr.70, one of the best Dutch Arts & Crafts Industrial design.

Cooperation with other factories.
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Copier Gero liqueur decanter - Andries Dirk Copier, 1930 (Nationaal Glasmuseum)
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Leerdam elixir bottle and glass with Gero- tin, design Georg Nilsson. Bottle height 15 cm and glass 11 cm
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Plazuid (Plateelbakkerij Zuid-Holland) pottery vase, with Gero (Zeist) pewter mount, art deco period, hight 11 cm, made ca.1930.

Leerdam Glass Factory/designer Andries Copier, cooperation between 1930 and 1933; candlesticks, flower vases, condiment sets and liqueur sets. In the early thirties, there is cooperation with the Plateelbakkerij Zuid Holland Gouda. Earthenware Gouda vases, bowls, candlesticks, ashtrays, bottles and such were in Zeist decorated with Gero-tin. The cooperation with design artists and other factories rose to fame of the Gero factory and participating in important national and international exhibitions. After World War II the Gero factory opened a new branch in Nieuw- Weerdinge, near Emmen, to increase production capacity.

To further increase the production capacity companies/factories were taken over by Gero: Hollandia Plate Hilversum, NV Reppel in Belgium and the German firm P. Bruckmann & Söhne in Heilbronn. The products produced by Bruckmann were manufactured from 1965 under the name 'Gero sterling silver', however, this company proved not to be profitable. In addition, the Gero factory could not handle the fierce international competition and lost market. In 1974 the Gero factory in Zeist was closed. The Gero factory in in Nieuw-Weerdinge managed to stay open in a much reduced form. In 1985 Gero factory/brand name is taken over by the Royal Van Kempen & Begeer in Zoetermeer. Today Gero is still produced .
(BK Cookware: The brand Gero and the brand BK are part of BK Cookware bv. BK Cookware bv. is part of the Royal Delft Group. De N.V. Koninklijke Delftsch Aardewerkfabriek "De Porceleyne Fles Anno 1653" (Royal Delft) is the leading producer of authentic Delft Blue ornamental earthenware and modern earthenware. In January 2008, Royal Delft acquired crystal producer Royal Leerdam Crystal and since September 2008 BV Koninklijke Van Kempen & Begeer (owner of the brand names: BK, Gero, Keltum and Royal VKB).

Gero factory maker’s mark for silver item made up till 2000:
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Gero silver plate trademark:
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The D in a circle is not a date letter but a design letter.The N in a circle is a production letter or production mark and various letters of the alphabet were used to keep control of manufacture. These production letters are on all silver-plated items as from 1917.
The Gero factory in Denmark used a capital P, probably for Plated.
In 1962, the production letters were placed in a square instead of a round circle.
Production letters used on plated items as such have no reference to a particular year and to my knowledge a Gero silver plate date/year/mark letter chart does not exist.
Gero silver plate the numbers 20, 40, 90 or 100 indicates the grams of pure silver used to silver plate 12 spoons and 12 forks. The higher the number, the higher the thickness of the silver layer (skin) or quality; 20, 40 90 or 100 grams of silver has been used. After 1965 Gero used only 100 grams.
Gero Sterling:
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Gero with Dutch (hall)marks:
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From left to right: Gero maker's mark for silver, 2nd standard mark silver, Minervahead/assay office mark and date letter P for: 1925


Gero Copenhagen silver plate trademark two towers:
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In 1922 Gero opened a factory in Copenhagen, Denmark which produced mainly products for the Danish & Nordic markets. Georg Nilsson born in 1888 Denmark and trained by the famous"Georg Jensen" was hired by Gero in Copenhagen as a designer & craftsman. After the closure of the Gero factory Copenhagen, Georg Nilsson settled in the Netherlands. Georg Nilsson continues to work for Gero in Zeist until he retired in 1957. His work is characterized by, at that time 'peculiar', hammered surface and the use of animal ornaments. Before World War II Nilsson designed cutlery models that were characterized by forms of art deco, hammered form or in the form of a cartouche. After the war, his designs became sleek and functional.

Gero factory used the services of famous designers who marked their designs: Georg Nilsson (GN), Theodorus Hooft (TH) pewter only, Chris van der Hoef (CJH), Jan Eisenloeffel (JE in circle), Rinze Hamstra (RH) pewter only and Andries Copier (C in circle )
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Designer Dick Simonis (DS in circle), son of the director Henri Simonis, started in 1944 to work for the Gero factory until 1974. After World War II it was in the first place important to bring production back on track and there was no attention to launch new models. In 1955 the Gero factory stopped the production of pewter objects, and only Zilmeta and Zilvium objects were produced. From 1959 Gero also produced Zilduro products with a higher nickel percentage compared to Zilmeta objects.
In 1957, after Georg Nilsson retired, the Gero factory employed Ib Jensen, a well-known designer from Denmark, and the son of Georg Jensen. In 1962 Ib Jensen returned, after completing a few designs back to Denmark. Dick Simonis was the only permanent designer employed at the Gero factory. The technically well-designed objects of Simonis are characterized by a sober unadorned line. The influence from Denmark where he had received part of his training is herein clearly visible. A Gero Zilmeta cookware designed by Simonis in 1958 received awards in Brussels and Canada 'because of high quality coupled with a pleasing shape'.
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Cookware set, Gero Zilmeta, design Dick Simonis, 1958

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Gero Hollandia plate for Hotels & Restaurants.
The factory: Hollandia Plate made exclusively cutlery and items for restaurants, shipping, etc. For large users.
In 1963 the Gerofabriek took over the Hollandia Plate factory in Hilversum and the brand: Gero-Hollandia Plate came into use.
See: http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic ... 81#p159381

100 jaar Gero;
http://www.gero.nl/webdocs/GERO_100jaar.pdf
Gero silver plate trademark name: Zilvium
Gero stainless steel trademark names; Zilmeta, & Zilduro (high nickel%)
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Peter.
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Van Kempen & Zonen/Kempen & Begeer & Vos/Koninklijke Nederlandse Edelmetaalbedrijven/Nederlandse Fabrieken van Kempen en Begeer N.V Gerritsen & van Kempen n.v. Zeist

History

“De Koninklijke Utrechtse Fabriek van Zilverwerken” is a Dutch company in Zoetermeer dedicated to the Art of Silver & Goldsmithing. In 1866 G.F.J. Bauer, the founder of the “Utrechtsche Zilverfabriek S. and J. van Lier & Zn and G.F.W Bauer “, was succeeded by Carel Joseph Begeer (1840-1879) and a little later the factory changed its name to: 'Utrechtse Fabriek van Zilverwerken C.J. Begeer'(in 1868). Carel Joseph Begeer died a young age and was succeeded by his younger brother Anthonie Begeer. At a later stage Anthonie married his brother’s widow Margje Johanna Straver on 1881 April 6. The son of Carel Joseph Begeer (1840-1879) & Margje Johanna Straver, called Cornelis L.J. Begeer, at 1890 worked as a partner under his stepfather/uncle Anthonie Begeer and under his leadership the factory produced, around the year 1900, silver objects in the Art Nouveau style. In 1883 Carel J.A. Begeer was born, son of Anthonie & Margje Begeer-Straver and stepbrother of Cornelis L.J Begeer.

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B under 2 stars; C.L.J Begeer , Utrecht mark used 1904/1951

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C B above star; C. J.Begeer, Kon. Utrechtse Fabriek van Zilverwerk, Utrecht, mark used 1868/1920
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Carel J.A. Begeer; Dutch goldsmith, designer of ornamental silver & silver utensils and later became director of Royal Van Kempen, born October 15th 1883 in Utrecht - deceased November 12, 1956 in Voorschoten.
Carel J. A. Begeer enjoyed a broad education at home and abroad, both in the fields of trade, Art and technology. In 1904 he was artistic director of the company from his father, and co-partner in 1908, after the death of his father in 1910, he became director. In 1907, his first designs are carried out in silver. Showing Roman naturalist ornaments & medieval influences and art nouveau features.
Carel J.A.Begeer used the services of other famous designers, including Chris van der Hoef, Jan Eisenloeffel, Harm Ellens, George Lantman, Gerrit Rietveld and Erich Wichmann. From 1904 until 1907 Jan Eisenloeffel designed metalwork and tableware for CJ Begeer in Utrecht.
In 1919 Carel Begeer merged his company with "J. K. Kempen & Zonen' located inVoorschoten and the firm J. Vos located in Rotterdam The name of this newly merged company: de 'Koninklijke Nederlandsche Edelmetaal Bedrijven Van Kempen, Begeer en Vos (K.N.E.B.)'. The workshops of this new company were established in the city of Voorschoten.
The company, based in Voorschoten, was reorganized in 1925. C.J.A. Begeer and D. Vos become the new members of the Executive Board. Former director Anthony Everdinus van Kempen left the company to become a director by Gerritsen Zeist a competitor, from that time on called; Gerritsen and Van Kempen (1925-1960). 'Koninklijke Nederlandsche Edelmetaal Bedrijven Van Kempen, Begeer en Vos (K.N.E.B.)' then changed the name into: 'Van Kempen and Begeer'
The company now produced less labor-intensive products; series of machine made products.
Since 1927 the designers Christa Ehrlich and later the German Emmy Roth joined the company.
The depression midst thirties was survived by producing Keltum plate and stainless steel cutlery.
In 1960 the merger of the two competing companies Gerritsen en Van Kempen in Zeist and Van Kempen en Begeer in Voorschoten to: Koninklijke Van Kempen & Begeer, established in Zoetermeer, from 1985.
Carel Joseph Anton Begeer, in addition to his work as a director of a company, was involved in many administrative activities which include; chairman of the Chamber of Commerce in Utrecht, chairman of the Dutch Chamber of Commerce for Germany, president and board member of The Hague Dutch Society for Industry and Commerce, and country chairman of the Dutch Society for Industry and Commerce, chairman of several museums and an arts & crafts school, and many other functions. For his many services he was awarded the rank of Officer in the Order of Orange-Nassau, he also received various international awards.
He also published about his field of expertise like an introduction to the ‘History of the Dutch Goldsmith’. (de 'Geschiedenis der Nederlandse Edelsmeedkunst').


http://buitenplaatsberbice.nl/familie-begeer/

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SBU; C.L.J. Begeer, Stichtse Fabriek van Goud en Zilverwerken, Utrecht, mark used 1932/1936

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Crowned B; Koninklijke Begeer b.v., Arteliers voor Edelsmeed en Penningkunst 1959- present


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V.K. within G or horseshoe, frame 2 conjoined vases for; Gerritsen & van Kempen n.v. Zeist around 1926/? (1961)

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K.B above V for Kempen & Begeer & Vos, Koninklijke Nederlandse Edelmetaalbedrijven, registered in the Dutch cities of 's Hertogenbosch, Utrecht and Voorschoten .Year used 1920-1931.


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VKB under a crown above crescent moon for Koninklijke (Royal) Nederlandse Fabrieken van Kempen en Begeer N.V. or Koninklijke van Kempen en Begeer, date entry 1961-present, cities of Zeist & Voorschoten, Leiden en Zoetermeer.

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V above a crescent moon for; Zilverfabriek Voorschoten (Silverfactory Voorschoten), a subsidiary of Koninklijke Nederlandse Edelmetaal Bedrijven( Royal Dutch Precious Metals Companies). Mark used 1925/1961

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VK under crescent moon or crescent moon between two dots, is the maker's mark for Firm J. M. van Kempen & Zonen, city of Voorschoten in the Netherlands, date entry 1858-1924.
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Image from left to right.
VA under a Crown for: van Arcken & Co registered in Batavia & Soerabaja ( Former Dutch Indies) registered from 1889 /?. Retailers.
VK under a crescent moon between two dots, maker's mark for: Firm J.M van Kempen & Zonen, located in the city of Voorschoten , this mark used 1858/1924
Lion Passant above 2: standard mark silver .833 fineness (1814-1953) with export key: mark to indicate 2/3 duty restitution upon export valid 1853 till 1953.
Minerva head or office mark with the regional assay office letter C in its helmet for the assay office of The Hague.
Date letter h for 1892

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De winkel (shop) of Van Arcken & Co at the Molenvliet in Noordwijk at Batavia West Java around 1880
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:COLLE ... 009496.jpg



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koninklijk ... %26_Begeer"

History of Royal Van Kempen & Begeer

1789 Johannes van Kempen joins the master guild
and founds his company.

1858 Royal assignation the company of Johannus
van Kempen by King Willem III.

1851 BK cookware is founded. In 1851 Coppersmith Hendrik Berk set up a factory in Kampen, the Netherlands.

1867 Participation at the World Exhibition in Paris.

1874 Participation at the World Exhibition in Vienna.

1912 Gero cutlery is founded, by Marius Gerritsen, a member of the famous silver family Gerritsen.

1919 Merger to KNEB for; Koninklijke Nederlandse Edelmetaal Bedrijven van Kempen, Begeer & Vos. One of the five subsidiary
called
Zilverfabriek Voorschoten

1936 Keltum silver plated hollowware is founded, with its first collection being designed by Gustav Beran.

1960 Merger of bv Koninklijke van Kempen & Begeer.

1986 bv Koninklijke van Kempen & Begeer acquires Gero

1988 bv Koninklijke van Kempen & Begeer acquires BK

2004 Van Kempen & Begeer opens futuristic shop in Utrecht

2005 Establishment of RoyalVKB as international brand.
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History of Van Kempen
J. M. van Kempen (III)
Utrecht silversmith (1814-1877)

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The name Van Kempen has long been a well known established ( household) name in the Dutch silver industry. This is mainly due to Johannes Mattheus (III) van Kempen (1814-1877), the first silver manufacturer to introduce modern production techniques in the Netherlands, to realize his dream of the mass production of silver and decorative objects. In 1858 the company moved from Utrecht to Voorschoten. In 1919 a merger took place with the firms of C.J . Begeer from Utrecht and Jac. Vos & Co. from Rotterdam. A few years later that merger initiated the departure of the Van Kempen from Voorschoten.

Johannes Mattheus van Kempen, joined in the footsteps of his father and grandfather both silversmiths. His grandfather was born in Utrecht in 1764, known as Johannes Mattheus van Kempen (I) and in 1789 admitted as master of the guild of silversmiths. His sons, Pieter Johannes (1790 - 1831) and Johannes Mattheus (II) (1792 - 1831) were also silversmith in Utrecht.

In 1834 Johannes Mattheus (III) (1814-1877) bought a modest shop at the Choorstraat in Utrecht.

He realized that factory made silver production would play an increasingly important role in modern society and it would play down the roll of the traditional handcraft gold smiting. Located at a large medieval building in Utrecht at the
Oude Gracht, which he bought in 1851, he ordered to build, a then very modern, steam engine. In this way he could with the help of an increasing number of well-trained employees, realize his dream: the modern way of producing cheaper, but good quality silver objects.

J. M. van Kempen wanted "pure of style" silver designs. In a brochure published in 1851, for the World Exhibition in London, Van Kempen discusses the five styles he used for his silverware: Greek, Gothic, Renaissance, Louis XIV and rocaille.


The main contribution of a Dutch silversmith at the first World's Fair, held in London in 1851, was that of the Utrecht silversmith J.M van Kempen. His entry consisted of five different objects in historical styles. Each style period represented with objects. In an accompanying letter Van Kempen explained that he had tried every style, as faithfully as possible, to interpret. The star of the exhibit was a jewelry box made by van Kempen which according to the silversmith 'exhibits characteristics of the Renaissance'.
Under Renaissance Van Kempen understood the style period introduced in the late 15th century in Italy and during the 16th and 17th century in France and England had celebrated triumphs. Like his contemporaries, Van Kempen did not distinguish between the early Italian Renaissance and the later French and English reaction thereof. Hence, in the decoration of the jewelry box motifs from both trends are recognisable: the little heads in the medallions go back to an invention by the Italian sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1442), while the scroll work with which the walls and the edges of the lid are decorated precisely characterises the last phase, which we now call Mannerism. Van Kempen appreciated in the Renaissance, especially the prominent ornamentation - the combination of surface ornament and sculptural elements.
The designer of the jewelry box, the painter and illustrator Gerardus Willem van Dokkum (1828-1903), succeeded to merge the past styles into a decidedly 19th-century object. In his design he took on more sculptural elements of his own invention. The most appealing is the dog on the cover, the dog as a guardian of the treasure jewelry. Under his front paw he holds an exact copy of the key to open the jewelry box.
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With three of his sons, Johannes Matheus is the founder and first director of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Fabriek van Gouden en Zilveren werken J. M. van Kempen & Zonen te Vooschoten (Royal Dutch Factory Golden and Silver Works J. M. Kempen & Sons in Voorschoten). At the opening of the new factory in 1858 in Voorschoten the predicate "Royal" has been granted to the company. since the sixties of the nineteenth century, English craftsmen were attracted to introduce the latest techniques for producing spoons and forks and famous artists like Willem van Dokkum and Hendrik Jacobus Valk, but also several anonymous designers were responsible for the often surprisingly modern designs of the silver ware produced in Van Kempen's factory.

The increasing prosperity in the second half of the nineteenth century also increased the demand for large silver and silver cutlery. Thanks to the introduction of modern mechanical techniques, the factory Van Kempen could meet with demands. Between 1860 and 1919 surprisingly new styles were introduced, as well traditional styles were maintained. In order to make a profit a plant with several hundred employees, had to be taking into account the tastes of all its customers.
At this time the factory production of large silver did not yet reached mass production . Only rarely were there more than three identical models simultaneously made. Mass production was the case with the manufacturing of cutlery and serving spoons, to meet demands, a special cutlery production plant was build . In this period the variation of cutlery increased dramatically; from cheese knives to you name it, each dish had its own spoon or fork & knife.

Van Kempen attached great importance to quality and careful finish of all the objects made. That is why the factory in Voorschoten made numerous commissions for the Royal Family and government institutions. In 1901 the president of the Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek (the old Transvaal ) Paul Kruger gave Van Kempen an important task to make a silver inkstand for Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.

Although Van Kempen in the 20th century also followed internationally recognized styles, sales of silver in the neo-styles continues to be of importance to the plant, new styles & models which at the end of the 19th century were designed under the responsibility of head cartoonist Jacobus Valk. In this period Van Kempen used the services of external artists to create designs, such as decorative artist Karel Sluyterman. His products are characterised by the use of ornate Art Nouveau floral motifs. Also, anonymous artists designed for Van Kempen in this Art Nouveau style.
Early last century, besides these exuberant designs, Van Kempen also made products that are simpler and more austere in form. Like tea sets and serving spoons & forks decorated with geometrical designs.
The artist Jacobus Valk managed and directed a large number of engravers and drafters, like Jan J. Warnaar who became an important designer at the drawing department. The first ten years of the 20th century Jan Warnaar designed jars, jewelry boxes and spoons decorated with oriental ornaments and gemstones, however in 1922 Jan Warnaar left Van Kempen followed in 1924 by Jacobus Valk who also left Van Kempen. At that time the sculptor Hendrik A. van den Eynde was an important freelance designer for Van Kempen, his masterpiece a symbolic urn, made in 1919, as of today still recognized as a highlight of Dutch Silver Art.
With the artists' designs, Van Kempen draw attention and hoped for positive reviews and planned to sell more of the ordinary, modern work. Therefore Van Kempen contracted sculptor Johan Altorf and artisans Tjipke Visser and Francoise Carbasius, whose work were shown by Van Kempen in various exhibitions, like at the yearly Utrecht Fair.

In 1919 the factory merged with the Koninklijke Utrechtsche Fabriek van zilveren werken C.J. Begeer and Jac. Vos & Co. from Rotterdam. The production was continued in the city of Voorschoten under the name of; Koninklijke Nederlandse Edelmetaalbedrijven Van Kempen, Begeer en Vos (KNEB ). After years of internal discord Carl Begeer became director of the firm.

In 1936 the first silver-plated items were produced under the name Keltum together with their Bugle (Hoorn) silver plate mark..
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Candelabra Keltum 1962, designer Gustav Beran (1912-2006), marked Keltum 90
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Keltum silver plate trademark
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The Royal Delft Group acquired in September 2008 BV Koninklijke Van Kempen & Begeer.

Oel

http://website.rkd.nl/Projecten/crva/3- ... jes-ws.pdf"

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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

SOLA

Since 1868 the Gerritsen family has been involved in the production and supply of silverware.
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Newspaper add 30th October 1924

Gerrowé, the factory in Zeist was founded in 1922 by Marius. J. Gerritsen, after he left Gero and in 1925 renamed Sola.
Cutlery and tableware was made in quality stainless steel, silver plated and sterling silver. In the fifties Sola started manufacturing cookware. Sola’s factory in Zeist, now mainly has a store function, the production takes place elsewhere. Nowadays the company is run by Bert Gerritsen, grandson of Marius.J. Gerritsen. Sola has been manufacturing and distributing its products through dealers and wholesalers, reaching all various sectors of the hospitality industry from hotels and hotel-supply companies, restaurants, airlines, cruise-lines and others.

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Silver teaspoons
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G*Z for M.J. Gerritsen BV, Sola Fabriek Zeist, date used 1968-present,International mark assay office Gouda, lion rampant, silver 1st standard 925/1000, Minerva head/assay office mark, letter R =Gouda, year letter K for 1994,
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G*Z for M.J. Gerritsen BV, Sola Fabriek Zeist 1968-present

Sola silver plated candle holders.
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Sola silver plated cutlery set.
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Sola stainless steel.
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Chromed stainless steel.


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Fa.(Firm) H. Hooijkaas 1874-2008; Zilverfabriek Schoonhoven
Silver Factory, founded in 1874 and led by the successive members of the Hooijkaas family. In 1874, the company named; Hooijkaas Schoonhovense silver factory was founded by Hubertus Hooijkaas and started as a small workshop. Around 1890 the company began to specialized in the electrolytic manufacturing of old Dutch silver. The company became in the thirties the most important silver factory in Schoonhoven and Schoonhoven's main employer, Hooijkaas had a major impact on the local Schoonhoven society. The silver factory of Hooijkaas, at a large-scale, produced hand made silver. In the boom years the company employed around 150 people. A not inconsiderable part of the company owed its existence to the savings campaigns of the famous Dutch coffee roaster & coffee & tea blender named Douwe Egberts. Among consumers Hooijkaas was well known as the supplier of the Douwe Egberts-spoons. Every pack of coffee & tea made by Douwe Egberts, I believe since the late sixties, comes with a points coupon. A certain amount of points could be exchange for coffee cups, silver plated coffee canisters and the famous silver plated spoons with the fancy monogram D.E on it for Douwe Egberts. The coffee coupons of D.E are still by many people collected and every so many years D.E changes the collection of his gift shop.
In the nineties, Hooijkaas emphasis shifted from production company to a trading company.

Zilverfabriek Hooijkaas Schoonhoven; after a few years of being empty, has been demolished in 2005, to give way to further urban development.


http://www.friesscheepvaartmuseum.nl/nl ... %2C%20H%3A"

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HH with serif in a rectangle for; Fa.(Firm) H. Hooijkaas c.v. also known as Schoonhovense zilverfabriek, Schoonhoven mark used 1906/1924.Year letter E for 1914.
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NB. A same mark HH sans serif in a rectangle has been used by Hermanus Hartman, Schoonhoven 1889/1910, always check the year letter. Here year letter X for 1907

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H 13; Herbert Hooijkaas, Schoonhoven, mark used 1875/1883. Also seen H13. mark used 1883/1909 and H.13 mark used 1875/1909

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*H.H* in rectangle with cut corners H. Hooijkaas b.v. Schoonhovense Zilverfabriek mark used 1946-2008. The date letter N for 1948,
made for export numeral fineness mark 830, standard mark with export key 833/1000 fineness, Minerva head/assay office mark regional assay office letter M for Schoonhoven. NB. In the assay office drawings of various marks of Hooijkaas often the serifs are missing!
Also seen; .HH.(1913-1947) *HH+, *H.H+ used 1943-2008.
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H13 in rectangle.Herbert Hooijkaas founds the company. In use from May 21, 1875 to June 2, 1883. Then renewed with the addition of a dot behind 13, in use until March 6, 1909
HH in rectangle. For big works. In use from March 6, 1906 to September 19, 1924

H in square. Herbert Hooijkaas enters into a general partnership with his sons Andries Dirk and Willem. In use from May 14, 1909 to September 19, 1924. Andries Dirk retires in 1921

HH with a dot on either side in hexagon. Herbert Hooijkaas withdraws, his son Willem continues the company. In use from September 19, 1924 to January 1, 1943
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HH with star on either side, in hexagon, 2nd standard mark, office mark / Minerva head with letter M for assay office Schoonhoven, year letter I for 1943. Willem Hooijkaas enters into a general partnership with his son Gerrit. In use from January 1, 1943 to January 1, 1947.

HH with a dot in between, and a star on either side, in hexagon. Gerrit Hooijkaas and his brother Herbert continue the company as a limited partnership. In use from January 1, 1947 to January 1, 2008

Mark for silver-plated objects. Bonnet or cardinal's hat, HH with a dot on either side in hexagon, and 90. This number is a measure of the thickness of the layer of silver that has been applied.
Source; Hooijkaas Schoonhovens Zilver in ambachten serie/1874-2008 by Tita Hooijkaas- van Leeuwen

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Hooijkaas, town mark Schoonhoven with letter M, the old regional assay office letter 1837-1984, 1 st standard mark, assay office mark/Minerva head with the assay office letter J for Joure, year letter P for 1999.
Interesting row of marks because of regional assay office letter J for Joure in the province of Friesland. The assay office in Schoonhoven was closed and Arie Pluut silversmith, then also boss of Hooijkaas, tried to pressure assay office Waarborg Holland in Gouda to open a branch in Schoonhoven. To do so, if possible he went for assay in Joure. In 2003 Waarborg Holland in Gouda changed tack and opened another branch in Schoonhoven and Hooijkaas/Zilverstad again went to inspect in Schoonhoven. In 2009, however, Zilverstad, including Hooijkaas, went bankrupt and in 2014 Waarborg Holland closed the branch in Schoonhoven due to a lack of clientele.


Herbert Hooijkaas used in a rectangle; H13, H13.(dot) and H.13


Pseudo marks or fantasy marks
The London World Exhibition of 1851 showed some good antique, old school silver pieces to set as an example to follow for the growing silver industries & factories. Not only industrial modern pieces, inspired by old styles became in high demand, the original antique pieces became highly popular too. Around 1860 pseudo marks popped up in The Netherlands, provinces North & South Holland, Friesland & Groningen. Pseudo old marks & fantasy marks were used for competitive reasons, the high demand for antique silver at home and abroad,for silver being old & handmade in the traditional way. The import regulations in the UK and US; antique silver could be imported at a lower duty rate compared to modern silver. However the British importers know the silver items are not old and do sell it at such; being curios cabinet items. The silversmiths of Schoonhoven, the traditional exporter of mostly small silver items to the UK & US, used pseudo marks purely for tax reasons.

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H13 up site down, in a rectangle for; Herbert Hooijkaas registered 1875-1909; often mistaken for the (H13) mark of Phillip Hovingh, Oude Pekela, registered 1832-1851 and the pseudo date letter H which is contributed to Hooijkaas but also used by Hendrik Preijer, Hoorn, registered 1896-1909, Both; Hooijkaas & Preijer used variants of the same pseudo marks; H13 (fat, flat serif) for Herbert Hooijkaas (unrecorded), an old ship or pseudo maker's mark, pseudo city mark for Amsterdam, H pseudo date letter.

A miniature made by Herbert Hooijkaas 1875-1883 maker's mark H13: with some of the pseudo/fantasy marks used in Schoonhoven.

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For Maker's Marks used by Schoonhoven Silversmiths after 1940 see:
http://www.verwoerdceramics.com/silver

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Re:Firma Helweg Amsterdam

Post by oel »

Jacobus Helweg or the founder father of the Helweg Era.

Jacobus Helweg (1725-1778), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1753 and 1778 with the maker's mark; IH in an oval. James Helweg was a specialist in hand-forged cutlery. After his death, his son, Roelof took over the business.
Double click on image to enlarge
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Roelof Helweg (1758-1843), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1778 and 1843 with the maker's mark; RH in oval, RH under a fish and RH under a spoon (after 1812). Roelof was a son of the silversmith James Helweg (1725-1778), from whom he took over the company. Like his father, Roelof Helweg specialized in forged tabel silverware. His sons Roelof Jr. (1792-1844), Jacob (1798-1875) and Henry (1802-1858) were also silversmith

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Jacob Helweg (1798-1875), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1822 and 1864 with the maker's mark; JH under a basket in a square and H next to a basket in a rectangle with cut corners. Jacob was a son of the silversmith Roelof Helweg (1758-1843). Jacob probable learned the trade of silversmith by master silversmith Jacob Hendrik Stellingwerff. Jacob Helweg made all kinds of objects, both great work, as little work, cutlery and serving spoons and created all kinds of silver frames for glass and porcelain.
Jacob Helweg worked for the firm's Bonebakker, Bennewitz & Sons, Benten & Weddelink.
In 1886 Jacob Helweg handed the company to his son Jacob Hendrik Helweg, maker's mark; JH above H3.
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Made by Jacob Helweg, retailed by the firm Bonebakker

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Hendrik Helweg (1802-1858), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1828 and 1858 with the maker's mark; HH under an anchor in a square. Hendrik was a son of the Amsterdam silversmith Roelof Helweg (1758-1843) and learned the trade in his father's workshop. In 1828 he started his own company specializing in table and dessert cutlery and small coffee and tea accessories. Major customers were the Amsterdam firms; Bonebakker & Son Bennewitz & Sons, J. W. Benten & Sons and businesses in The Hague, Utrecht and Rotterdam. After his death his widow and her son Carel Hendrik Roelof continuid the company under the name; Widow H. Helweg & Son.

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Carel Hendrik Roelof Helweg (1844-1912), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1875 and 1912 with the maker's mark; H under an anchor and HH under an anchor, both marks in an oval. Henrik was a son of the silversmith Hendrik Helweg (1802-1858). Initially he worked, as of 1875, in the workshop of his mother under the company name of; Wed. H. Helweg & Son. The company supplied to Bonebakker, Benten & Son, Begeer, Voet and Van Arcken. His son Carel Hendrik Roelof Jr. Helweg came in 1901, as an apprentice, in the workshop and continued from 1912 the company with his brother Carl Hendrik, with the maker's mark; WHH under an anchor. This firm existed until 1965




Helweg marks.

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Gratitude; Het Zilver Lexicon by Janjaap Luijt and many others.
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Gebr. S & H Reitsma
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R under a repousse hammer for: Gebr.(Brothers) S. & H. Reitsma or S. Reitsma, registered in the city of Sneek during 1892/1948.
Steven Reitsma, born in Sneek on the 19th December 1862 and deceased in Sneek on December the 15th 1948. Hendrik Reitsma, born in Sneek on the 4th of July 1870 and deceased in Deventer on the 2nd of May 1916. Both are the sons of Tjitte Reitsma (1821-1904) and Froukje Posthumus, and grandchildren of silversmith Steven Tjittes Reitsma from Lemmer, who later moved to Sneek.
Literature: -. Yearbook Frisian Maritime Museum 1983


________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Gebr. Roelfsema.
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R6 in a vertical rectangle with cut corner for: J. H. Roelfsema or Firma Gebr (Brothers) Roelfsema. Other known marks: R6.(dot) in a horizontal rectangle with cut corners and 3 above GR in a square. The brothers Roelfsema were located in the city of Winsum, province of Groningen. Regional assay office Groningen, letter code E. Registered from 1894 till 1910 known for silver purse frames, silver bible locks, small silver boxes and other small silver work.

Gebr. Roelfsema made use of pseudo marks.
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The owner of this silver purse frame thought it to be town mark of Zutphen. Not Zutphen, the town mark of Zutphen is without a crown. The marks are Dutch pseudo marks; CP conjoined fake master's mark of Cornelis Papinck ( city of Groningen), crowned cross fake master mark (Groningen),
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Medieval helmet fake maker's mark of Rintje Jans (city of Leeuwarden), BI fake makers mark of Bernardus Jelgerhuis ( 18th century Frisian silver smith. The silver purse frame probably made in Groningen around the turn of the 19th century or later. 


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

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Assayer's identification mark
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C over V with the number 2 is the assayer's mark for; C. Vreedenburgh Jr(Junior)., assayer in the city of Schoonhoven during 1920/1927. The number 2, in the assayer's mark of C. Vreedenburgh Jr indicated silver; 2nd standard or 833 fineness.
Mr. Vreedenburgh had five assayer's identification marks ; C over V without a number for general use. C over V with the number 1 for; gold (916) and silver (934) 1st standard, with the number 2 for; gold (833) and silver (833) 2nd standard, with the number 3 for; gold (750) third standard and the number 4 for; gold of 4th standard or 583 fineness

Until 1931 the assayers were personally liable for mistakes in the results of their works.
The assayer's identification marks are among others, to identify parts of hollow ware, sometimes also complete items and semi made items, which have been submitted for preliminary assay. After completion the items are submitted for final hallmarking. After checking the identification marks, the items are marked without further assay. The numbers indicate the legal standards of fineness;

1: till 1931 gold 916, silver 934

2: till 1931 gold 833, silver 833

3: till 1931 gold 750

4: till 1931 gold 583

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Meine Stuart

Post by oel »

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MS 41. with * is the maker’s mark of; Meine Stuart located in the city of Zwartsluis province of Overijssel. Meine Stuart registered 1820/1851 with various marks.
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Rinze Jans Spaanstra and Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek

Post by oel »

The London World Exhibition of 1851 showed some good antique, old school silver pieces to set as an example to follow for the growing silver industries & factories. Not only industrial modern pieces, inspired by old styles became in high demand, the original antique pieces became highly popular too. Around 1860 pseudo marks popped up in The Netherlands, provinces North & South Holland, Friesland & Groningen. Pseudo old marks & fantasy marks were used for competitive reasons, the high demand for antique silver at home and abroad,for silver being old & handmade in the traditional way. The import regulations in the UK and US; antique silver could be imported at a lower duty rate compared to modern silver. However the British importers know the silver items are not old and do sell it at such; being curios cabinet items. The silversmiths of Schoonhoven, the traditional exporter of mostly small silver items to the UK & US, used pseudo marks purely for tax reasons.

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RS above 2 for: Rinze Jans Spaanstra registered in the cities of Drachten/Wommels/Berlicum(Frisian) and Nijehaske from around 1843 till 1896. Known to have used those particular set of pseudo marks see: http://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopic ... 568#p85568
Seen on spoons, the well known pseudo marks; VB and MC both pseudo maker‘s mark, single headed eagle pseudo city mark for Deventer.
Rinze Jans Spaanstra registered two maker’s marks; RS above 2 and RS above 158, he is well known to have used this particular set of fantasy marks.
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MC pseudo maker’s mark, a fern leave another pseudo maker’s mark and a running animal (up site down) the third pseudo maker’s mark. Hallmark Lion Rampant 1, standard mark to indicate silver 934/1000 fineness or 93.4% pure silver used 1814-1953. And with export key mark to indicate 2/3 duty restitution upon export valid 1853 till 1953. Original maker's mark RS above 158 for; Rinze Jans Spaanstra

The Hague pseudo marks used;
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These pseudo/fantasy marks are typical for The Hague
Crowned A; pseudo/fake year letter silver guild The Hague for 1747
Lion rampant facing left in a crowned shield; pseudo/fantasy standard mark province of Holland. Actually, the lion rampant is facing the wrong way compared to the original standard mark. Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek has often used this fantasy standard mark
T; pseudo/fake year letter
Crowned O; pseudo/fake duty free mark for 1807

Most of these “ The Hague” pseudo marks were used between 1880 and 1945 by Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek, his son Arnold, and by their successor Hendrik Poelman. Paulus van der Beek started as a silversmith in Friesland. In 1854 he settled in Workum, from where he moved to Franeker in 1877. In 1880 he left for The Hague, where he died in 1909. His son Arnold continued the business, and transferred his business to Hendrik Poelman in 1923, who continued the business till 1946

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Yes pseudo marks can be deceiving. The British Museum metal detector find; Post-Medieval cast silver spoon bowl. Oval; rats tail end to stem extending roughly one third of the way down the bowl. Four marks stamped on the underside of the bowl; three around end of stem ('VB' to left, star/flower at end, crowned lion(?) (rampant to right) and one at edge of the bowl ('BS/2').
https://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts ... /id/434919
We know better


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Re: Dots in a Dutch date letter?

Post by oel »

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From left to right; the maker's mark is GG for: Gerit Regtdoorzee Greup, registered in the city of Schoonhoven from 1864/1915( used 4 different maker's marks), Lion Passant above 2, standard mark for large and medium work, 833/1000 fineness used 1814-1953, The Minerva head or Assay office mark with the regional assay office letter M for the city of Schoonhoven, followed by the date letter C for 1912. Until 1931 the assayers were personally liable for mistakes in the result of their work. Until 1931 date letters were considered to be their responsibility marks. When in the course of a year the assayer of a certain office was succeeded by another one, as a consequence the date letters of that office were provided with a distinguishing mark. Usually it was a dot, but commas, crosses and stars also occurred. There are a few date letters bearing two dots; the result of two changes of assayer within a single year.

Ref: Netherlands'Responsibility marks from 1797 part 1


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Alle de Haas also known as Fa. (Firm) A. de Haas or Th. De Haas.

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AH 1 in a rectangle for; Alle de Haas also known as Fa. (Firm) A. de Haas or Th. De Haas, city of Sneek, mark used 1879/1966. His maker's mark is often seen in combination with pseudo marks.


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AH above 1 in a square for; Alle de Haas also known as Fa. (Firm) A. de Haas or Th. De Haas, city of Sneek, mark used 1877/1966. His maker's mark is often seen in combination with pseudo marks. From left to right; pseudo city mark for Amsterdam, pseudo town mark Sneek and pseudo year letter.
Alle de Haas (1849-1923), founder father of Firm Alle de Haas in 1877, was a very talented master using the old silver techniques in combination with fantasy marks and later with pseudo/fake marks, because antique silver with the old guild marks sold far better than modern hand made silver in the traditional way.
Mundus vult decipi, ergo decipiatur
Friesland' s interest in antique silver is further encouraged by two exhibitions, both held in Leeuwarden, the first in 1900 and second in 1927.
Pseudo old marks & fantasy marks were used for competitive reasons, the high demand for antique silver at home and abroad, silver being old & handmade in the traditional way. The import regulations in the UK and US; antique silver could be imported at a lower rate of duty compared to modern silver. The British importers know the silver items are not old and do sell it at such; being curios cabinet items.
The firm of Alle de Haas continued after his death, using the same maker's mark AH 1, until the firm went out of business in 1966.
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project Andries Vis

Post by oel »

Zilveren Gelegenheids lepel, zilversmid Andries Vis(ch)


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In Dutch Herinneringslepel or Gelegenheidslepel or Sierlepel and Commemorative spoon or ornamental spoon in English. Commemorative spoons are made ​​to give as a present and to celebrate a special occasion like; baptism, wedding, funeral or historical event. Often the spoons are engraved with dates and names. Some commemorative spoons are plain tablespoons with an inscription.

Dutch silver commemorative spoon, weight 56 gram, length 19.3 cm. The stem cast, and the tip a sailing ship three mast. The bowl hand forged, 7 cm by 4.7 cm. Rat-tail spoon — developed in the later 17th century; with a thin pointed tongue soldered on to the bottom of the bowl to reinforce the joint of the bowl and stem's shoulder . Left of the stem's shoulder and inside upper side of the bowl we see a scratch mark where the assayer took a sample of the silver alloy, to test the silver standard.
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The back of the spoon's stem, the base of the sailing ship shows a 2nd scratch mark made by the assayer. The location of the marks; on the back of the bowl on the right side of the rat tail.
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Marking; a shield with three crosses saltire on a pale surmounted by a crown, the town mark of Amsterdam (Andreas crosses). See L.B. Gans Goud en zilvermerken van Voet, Amsterdam 2014, p.15, year1747. A rampant lion within a crowned shield, the Dutch provincial lion for Holland 1st standard silver 934/1000 fineness, used between 1663 and 1807. A Roman capital N within a circle (cameo), the year letter for 1747.
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A fish within an oval (cameo) maker's mark for; Andries Vis, registered in Amsterdam 1741-1799, born 1722, died 1799. Workshop located at the Egelantiersgracht, the workshop well advertised by Andries Vis, a prolific maker of cast spoons (cutlery) and silver forged teapots. See K.A. Citroen Amsterdamse Zilversmeden en hun merken p. 200

For more images see:

https://imageshack.com/a/vkb4/1



http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the ... rch/188279


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark Jan van den Broek

Post by oel »

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VDB under a crossed fork & spoon, lion rampant 1st standardmark fineness 934/1000, assay office Amsterdam, regional assay office letter A, year letter F for 1840.
Jan van den Broek active and registered in Amsterdam from 1822 till 1860. Jan van den Broek used a total of nine maker’s marks base upon his initials; JB, JvdB, VDB and VdB, all under a crossed fork & spoon. He was a well known spoon maker.


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

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Haarlemsche Zilversmederij K.H. Schermerhorn {v.h A. Presburg & Zn sinds 1919}

The Haarlemsche Zilversmederij (HZS) was founded in 1919 by Arnold Presburg together with his partner Arie Hoogteiling. 100 years later on September 30, 2019, the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij has been declared purveyor to the Royal Household (Hofleverancier).
Arnold Presburg started his career at the Firma Bonenbaker in Amsterdam. Here he worked daily from 6 to 6 with big names of the Dutch silverware industry: the Zwollo's, N.A.van Everdingen en Nico Witteman. In his spare time Arnold Presburg took drawing lessons at the evening drawing school under the guidance of Andre van Vlaanderen.

In 1916 Presburg left for Rotterdam to work for the Firma Vos en Co. They had set up a “Hollands glad zilver” department in Rotterdam under the leadership of Aldert Schoorl. Hollands glad is a cutlery model where the fork and spoon handle has no edge decoration and a rounded handle. A year later, in 1917, the department moved to Haarlem. The Presburg family followed and also moved to Haarlem. A merger took place in 1919 between Vos and Van Kempen & Begeer, which meant that the Haarlem factory had to move to the city of Voorschoten.
Arnold Presburg, together with his partner A.A. Hoogteiling, decided to stay in Haarlem and found the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij in 1919. In 1932, 13 years later, Arie Hoogteiling left the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij. Presburg continued alone for a number of years. Until 1951 when his son, Georg Presburg, became a partner. Georg Presburg had already gained experience by working under his father and thus learning the trade. On December 31, 1971 Arnold Presburg stopped working at the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij at the age of 78. Georg Presburg remained the owner until 1998 when he sold the business to Karel Schermerhorn, who still owns the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij.
Curriculum Vitae
1919-1924 registered workshop silver under the name; Fa.(Firm) A. Presburg & A.A. Hoogteiling and two maker’s mark P+H in rectangle one single and one with double lining.
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In 1924-1932 registered workshop Fa. Hoogteiling & Presburg with maker’s mark H+P in rectangle.
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In 1932-1951 registered workshop A. Presburg maker’s mark AP3 in 6 angular frame.
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Year letter m for 1947



In 1951-1998 registered workshop A. Presburg & Zoon with maker’s mark APz3 in 6 angular frame.
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Year letter L for 1995, assay office letter R for Gouda
It appears the name Haarlemsche Zilversmederij first officially registered with the name of Karel Schermerhorn and previously used only popularly

Karel Schermerhorn's career started with a gold and silversmith training at the MTS vocational school in Schoonhoven. Through his education he ended up for an internship in Antwerp. After his internship he worked as a silversmith for 1.5 year in Antwerp. After his period in Antwerp, Karel Schermerhorn started working at the jeweler H.C.D.Lyppens in Amsterdam. Through jeweler H.C.D.Lyppens he came into contact with silversmith D. Burger who worked in Haarlem. Partly as a result of this collaboration, Schermerhorn came across the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij. After 7 years working for Lyppens he decided to take over the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij in 1998. Important through this takeover he also acquired the old moulds & templates of silversmith A. Presburg.
Haarlemsche Zilversmederij K.H. Schermerhorn {v.h A. Presburg & Zn sinds 19919} maker’s mark KSH with hammer. Lex Baartse had been working at the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij since 1959 and after the takeover Lex Baartse continued to work for the Haarlemsche Zilvermederij. Until Lex Baartse, after 59 years of loyal service, said goodbye in 2018.
After having been a reliable silver workshop for 100 years, the Haarlemsche Zilversmederij KH Schermerhorn was awarded the honorary title of Purveyor to the Court on 8 November 2019 by Haarlem Mayor Wienen.

https://haarlemschezilversmederij.nl/
https://blijeduurzamista.wordpress.com/ ... -ik-maken/

Haarlemsche Zilversmederij KH Schermerhorn is one of the last traditional silversmiths in the Netherlands. In addition to their own products such as; silver biscuit box or cookie jar, candlesticks, child’s cup and bottle coaster. They can make customer's own idea or design in silver.

The most important part of the business is restoration and repair. Restoration of mainly 17th and 18th century silverware, made by the members of the very powerful gold & silver guilds in the past, and repair of second-hand items brought in by dealers or collectors. Karel Schermerhorn: “Because we can make so much, we can also restore a lot”. His choice for the latter specialism turned out to be a good one. HZS now mainly works for antique dealers, dealers, private individuals, museums, churches and synagogues.

Herewith an example of his workshop’s work; Cake server; length 23.5cm, length/width spade 10/5.5cm, weight 102 gram.

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Left to right; maker’s mark KHS hammer, lion passant 2nd silver standard 835/000, assay office mark/Minerva head letter M for Schoonhoven, year letter V for 2005.


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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Frans Zwollo senior 1872-1945

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Frans Zwollo senior (1872-1945) came from a family of goldsmiths, where the craft was passed on from father to son. His father Johannes (Jan) Zwollo senior (1835-1891) was a foreman in the first workshop of the company Bonebakker & zoon in Amsterdam. Two older brothers of Frans senior, Maarten and Johannes (Jan) junior, worked for Bonebakker & zoon, J.M. van Kempen & Zoonen in Voorschoten and C.J. Desire in Utrecht.
From 1886 to 1888 he followed a drawing and sculpting course at the Teekenschool voor Kunstambachten Amsterdam; there was no specialized training for goldsmiths at that time. During a stay in Brussels and Paris in 1892 and 1893, he became inspired by Art Nouveau designs (including those of the silver manufacturers Delheid and Wolfers Frères). Frans Zwollo senior came into contact with Art Nouveau. Hand-driven floral motifs, geometric patterns and decorations with cabochon cut (semi) precious stones are frequently used in unique pieces designed by him. The hammered appearance is also characteristic of its traditional craftsmanship. Inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement, but also by his theosophical philosophy, he linked craftsmanship to substantive and spiritual value, a direction that determined a period within the Dutch applied arts at the beginning of the twentieth century.
From 1893 he established himself as an independent goldsmith in Amsterdam, interrupted by a year (1895) in which he worked for Van Kempen in Voorschoten. He carried out his own designs as well as commissions for Bonebakker & Zoon, Fa. Hoeker & Zoon and Roelof Citroen.
Frans Zwollo senior taught at the Haarlem School of Applied Arts (1897-1907). When the School of Applied Arts in Haarlem established a separate training course for artistic metalworking in 1897, Zwollo became the first teacher of the metal driving and embossing class. He remained associated with the school until 1907. In the meantime, his work began to attract international attention. In 1900 he received a bronze medal at the world exhibition in Paris (his work was part of the collective submission of the Haarlem School of Applied Arts) and in 1902 at the first International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art in Turin, he received a gold medal for his fruit bowl.


He collaborated with architect K.P.C. de Bazel and Mathieu Lauweriks, as well as himself a member of the theosophical movement. Until 1910, the Bonebakker company was the most important client for Frans Zwollo senior. From 1910 until the First World War he stayed in Germany at the Hagener Silberschmiede, where he executed many designs by Mathieu Lauweriks. After his return to the Netherlands, he became a teacher at the Academy of Visual Arts in The Hague. He would remain attached to this academy until 1931 (and to teach and train Willem Valk and his son Frans Jr., among others). He also became a member of Arti et Industria in The Hague and opened his own studio there, where Frans Jr. started to assist him. Here he carried out several assignments for Hélène Kröller-Müller, among others. In 1925 he again received a gold medal, this time for his entry to the high-profile 'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes' in Paris. In 1935 he finally took up a teaching position for the last time, albeit only for a short time, at the Vocational School for Gold and Silversmiths in Schoonhoven. After his retirement he went to live in Amstelveen in 1937. By passing on his skills and his views on the profession to new generations of goldsmiths, he has strongly influenced the development of Dutch gold & silversmith Art. The work of Frans Zwollo senior is in various museum collections.
Zwollo's theosophical philosophy of life was expressed in the symbolism and ornaments of his goldsmith's work and its technical execution. The carefully chosen cabochon (spherical) cut gemstones that he applied to his silverware also each had a meaning. Nature was his great source of inspiration, as were elements from Egyptian, Persian and Middle and East Asian cultures. A good goldsmith, according to Zwollo, possesses a love for the work, a sense of beauty and is able to carry out his original idea technically. All this without the help of a machine that is only useful for production items, but not for items of artistic value.
The design of his work from his early years is characterized by objects with sharp contours or relief decoration against a flat surface. Often decorations are made of flowers, tendrils, insects and motifs from the Persian culture. Zwollo, who left behind an extensive oeuvre of mainly smaller ornamental and utensils, was undisputedly one of the most prominent Dutch goldsmiths and metal designers of his time. Together with Jan Eisenloeffel (whom he knew well, for example through the VANK, of which he was a member since its foundation in 1904), he exerted a great influence on metal art from the beginning of the 20th century. While Eisenloeffel is best known for the sobriety of his designs, Zwollo has never suppressed the decorative element in his design so strictly. His ornamentation, which in the beginning was often derived from nature but took on an increasingly abstract character after ca. 1910, is, however, always integrated into the overall form and thus his work is essentially just as innovative as that of his colleague.
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silver vase designer Frans Zwollo for Van Kempen
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https://www.boijmans.nl/collectie/kunst ... -zwollo-sr
http://www.theosofie.nl/tijdschrift/edi ... %20was.pdf


Frans Zwollo Jr born Amsterdam, October 15, 1896, deceased Arnhem, October 24, 1989

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The silversmith Frans Zwollo Jr was a son of the famous Dutch silversmith Frans Zwollo Sr who learned the trade from his father and also followed courses at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Wuppertal, the academy in The Hague and the London School of Arts and Crafts. The work of Frans Zwollo junior is inextricably linked with that of his father Frans Zwollo senior, by whom he was trained, both in the studio and in the goldsmith class of the Academy of Visual Arts in The Hague. From 1915 to the end of the 1920s, Frans junior worked in his father's studio in The Hague and also executed his designs. Around 1930 he established himself as an independent goldsmith in Arnhem, where he was also a teacher at the Art Practice Association / Academy of Fine Arts and Crafts until his retirement. The work of Frans Zwollo junior is characterized by a traditional appearance and great technical perfection. Like his father, Zwollo junior was a convinced theosophist. Influences of this philosophy are clearly reflected in his work. One of Frans Zwollo junior's sons, Paul Zwollo, was also a goldsmith. He worked together with his father in the studio on the Cronjéweg in Oosterbeek and regularly carried out assignments together.

Paul Zwollo born The Hague 1930-09-16, deceased Blaricum 2007-08-28

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Marinus Zwollo born Voorschoten, February 27,1903, deceased Amstelveen, June 19, 1983

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Marinus Zwollo was a goldsmith, who in his younger years would have liked to become a sculptor. He was the youngest son of Johannes Zwollo Jr and a grandson of Johannes Zwollo Sr, both skilled silversmiths. In 1907 the family moved to Amsterdam, where Johannes Jr. succeeded his father Johannes Sr. as manager of the silver factory of the Bonebakker company.
Education
In 1915 - at the age of 12 - Marinus Zwollo was one of the four students of the newly founded class of goldsmiths at the Quellinus School in Amsterdam. He would be the only one to graduate after 4 years. It had mainly been theoretical lessons and a lot of drawing lessons, because there was no money for materials. But material was available at his father's silver factory. At the age of 16 he apprenticed for another year with his uncle Frans Zwollo Sr., who was a teacher at the Academy of Visual Arts in The Hague from 1914-1924. After that extra school year, the now 17-year-old Marinus left for Munich and successfully passed the entrance exam at the Kunstgewerbeschule. The architect Richard Riemerschmid was director and the school attracted international attention.
Life and work
As a 21-year-old goldsmith, Marinus Zwollo accepted the challenge in Antwerp to make an altar ciborium, a large canopy, for the Sint-Jan de Doperkerk in Waalwijk. This neo-Byzantine church was designed by architect Hendrik Willem Valk. The copper canopy represents a temple of leather hides and was a gift from the Waalwijk leather merchants. In the evenings he attended modeling lessons at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp. His teacher there was the sculptor Frans Huygelen. Marinus Zwollo remained a goldsmith, but he indulged in embossing his predilection for modelling. He became a master in driving reliefs. After Antwerp he still worked in Paris and later he established himself as an independent goldsmith in Leuven, where young priests from the seminary gave him a lot of work. In the early 1930s he returned to Amsterdam. Together with his father and his uncle Frans Zwollo Sr. he rented a studio in the Langestraat. His uncle took care of the orders. Second World War. In 1941 working in Amsterdam became too difficult and too dangerous and Marinus moved with his family to Amstelveen. His uncle Frans also went with him. Until 1942 it was still possible to deliver work. After that, work became impossible.
Teacher
Marinus Zwollo was appointed in 1949 as teacher of goldsmiths at the Institute for Applied Arts Education in Amsterdam, the former Quellinus School. In the nearly twenty years that followed, he taught a whole generation of young artists in goldsmithing. Well-known students of his are Emmy van Leersum and Gijs Bakker. Marinus Zwollo retired in 1968.
Family
Marinus Zwollo married Alida Witteman in 1937 and seven children were born from this marriage.

http://home.kpn.nl/martin-zwollo/marinuszwollo.html


Peter.
Reference; Wikimedia, Rijksmuseum, Christies, RKD, VVNK
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

Adrianus Bonebakker and Diederick Lodewijk Bennewitz

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Adrianus Bonebakker (1767-1842)
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Family Crest of the Bonebakkers

Adrianus Bonebakker was baptised as the son of Anthonij Bo[o]nebakker (1730-1797) and Maria Cornelia van Oosterhoudt (1734-1820) in Tiel on 31 May 1767. His father was the proprietor of the loan bank in Buren and Tiel. He moved to Amsterdam, where he completed his Master’s in silversmithing in 1792, with the registered maker's marks; Image
Maker's mark registered during the Kingdom of Holland 1807-1812
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Also in 1792 Bonebakker married Elisabeth du Pré (1760-1811). Seven daughters and a son, Jacques Antoine Bonebakker (1798-1868), were born from this marriage. He remarried in 1818, this time with Wijnanda Lucretia Tijdeman (1770-1826). He became a member of the Royal Academy of Visual Arts around 1820.
Bonebakker partnered up with Diederik Lodewijk Bennewitz to take over a well-known Dutch gold, silver and jewellery shop in 1802, the Peirolet brothers’ business. Initially under the brothers Peirolet, Bennewitz & Bonebakker name and later as Bennewitz & Bonebakker.

Bennewitz & Bonebakker
Bennewitz was tasked with managing the workshop within the Bennewitz and Bonebakker company. Bonebakker took responsibility for the business side of things. Although he was registered as a silversmith, Adrianus Bonebakker is not known to have produced any of his own work, according to the Dutch Institute for Art History. The work was outsourced to gold and silversmiths like T.G. Bentvelt, J.A. de Haas, A.H. Pape, D.W. Rethmeyer, H.P. La Ruelle and J.H. Stellingwerff.
Prestigious assignments during this period included, for example, the ones commissioned by the City of Amsterdam to produce the so-called city keys. In 1806 the French occupied the Netherlands. King Louis (Lodewijk) Napoleon was presented with these ceremonial keys when he entered the city.

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These keys to the City of Amsterdam were produced in 1806 to be offered to King Lodewijk Napoleon as he entered the city. Circumstances dictated this didn’t actually happen until 1808.. A second set of keys to Amsterdam were produced in 1811 and handed to Napoleon Bonaparte on 9th October of that year. Both sets were made by Bennewitz. The second set wasn’t paid for by Amsterdam until four years later. The same set of keys were used in 1813 during King Willem I’s entry. Willem I was the son of the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. After an agreement with Napoleon, he became the ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806, when he was deposed by Napoleon. In November 1813, after the Defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, he was asked to become the Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands on 16 March 1815. On 9 June of the same year, William I also became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and in 1839 he became the Duke of Limburg.

The silverware produced in the first half of the 19th century for the Amsterdam shopkeepers Bennewitz and Bonebakker was leading throughout the Netherlands.

As Bonebakker & Zoon


The partners decided to part company in 1822 for business reasons, after which Bennewitz launched the Bennewitz & Zonen company and Bonebakker and his son continued under the name; As Bonebakker & Zoon. Firm of shopkeepers in gold and silver objects and jewellery in Amsterdam. In the first thirty years of its existence, all work was outsourced to other gold and silversmiths, such as; T. G. Bentvelt, Jan Cornelis Sneltjes, Stellingwerff & Van Grasstek, J. Helweg, J.A. de Haas, J. Carrenhoff, R. Helweg, P. Las van Bennekom and H. Helweg.
The company was continued by various descendants of Adrianus. From 1854 it had its own master’s mark (AB&Z) and from 1870 to 1952 the company also operated its own workshop in addition to a shop. The company still exists today, under the Bonebakker name, the company is owned by a larger concern. Image

The company was commissioned by King Willem II to make the royal crown in 1840. The maker of this crown, which to this day is still being used during coronation ceremonies, was Theodorus Gerardus Bentvelt (born 1782- deceased in 1853).
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An Amsterdam silver coffee pot with burner. Comprising coffee pot with wooden handle and openwork brassier resting on an ebonised wood base. H 37 cm, weight of coffee pot 1,120 g. Marks presumably of Theodorus Gerardus Bentvelt, 1835.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Bonebakker & Zoon was the most important Amsterdam silver manufacturer and shopkeeper. Bonebakker had a lot of silverware made by independent Amsterdam silversmiths, but he also employed craftsmen himself. After the death of Bentvelt, Jacques A. Bonebakker chose Pieter Pieterse (born 1821- deceased 1903) as his new work master. Pieterse was born in 1821 as the son of Pieter Pieterse and Sophia Wilhelmina Ruhfus. In 1844 he married Cornelia Wilhelmina Sneltjes. On January 31, 1846, Pieterse was registered as a master silversmith and probably supplied exclusively to the firm As Bonebakker & Zoon. Pieterse started supplying Bonebakker after the death of silversmith Theodorus Gerardus Bentvelt in 1853. From 1 July 1855 he was put in charge of the workshop of As Bonebakker & Zoon in the Korte Leidsedwarsstraat. The silver pieces bore two master's marks: the master's mark of As Bonebakker & Zoon, which was also registered in the name of Pieterse, and his already existing master's marks. The most prestigious silverware of that time were from his hand. A well-known work is the so-called Artisbokaal. In 1863, the Royal Zoological Society Natura Artis Magistra, the second oldest zoo in Europe, celebrated its 25th anniversary. On the occasion of this anniversary, a silver goblet was ordered by the members of Artis from As Bonebakker & Zoon and donated to founder-director Dr G.F. Westerman, which was made by Pieter Pieterse. The goblet is now in the collection of the Amsterdam Museum.
His brother-in-law Jan Cornelis Sneltjes(born 1829-1853 master silversmith-deceased?) succeeded him in 1870 as chef d'atelier at As Bonebakker & Zoon.
Image maker’s mark PP under anchor

Silver teapot and milk jug, Pieter Pieterse for A. Bonebakker & Zoon, Amsterdam 1858
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Maker’s mark: Pieter Pieterse, Amsterdam; AB&Z(Pieter Pieterse A. Bonebakker & zoon), mark used 1855/1870 with PP under anchor and BONEBAKKER & ZOON, Amsterdam. Essayer’s mark: Hendrik Willem van Riel, Amsterdam. Teapot: Length 23.5 cm. Width 12.5 cm. Height 14.5 cm. Milk jug: Length 14.5 cm. Width 8.5 cm. Height 10.8 cm.Weight: 565 grams

This great craftsman acquired the right to stamp his master’s mark on every piece of work by his hand that left the Bonebakker shop, in addition to the Bonebakker’s mark.
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A portrait of the Adrianus Bonebakker family during a visit from – in all probability – partner Diederik L. Bennewitz (seated, with the silver object unwrapped, chamois leather patch in other hand). Bonebakker himself can be seen holding a document/bill. Painting by Adriaan de Lelie (1809), Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.


Silver cream set, A. Bonebakker & Zoon, Amsterdam, 1889

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A. Bonebakker & Zoon, maker’s mark Jan Cornelis Sneltjes (A. Bonebakker & Zoon), this particular mark used 1874-1884, R +4 in oval essayer's mark of Hendrik Willem van Riel active 1854-1880 in Amsterdam and Schoonhoven.


Stellingwerff & Van Grasstek
S & G

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Maker’s mark of Widow J.H. Stellingwerff & Abraham Bernardus van Grasstek
Gesina Voorthuys the widow of J.H. Stellingwerff continued her husband's business in 1824, from 1837 until her death in 1849, together with silver smith servant Abraham Bernardus van Grasstek. Van Grasstek was in charge of the workshop from Stellingwerff's death. They supplied silverware to Bennewitz & Zonen, Bonebakker & Zoon and Benten. The workshop made beautiful silverware. (source: Van Benthem 2005 and RKD)

Jacob Helweg
Made by Jacob Helweg, retailed by the firm Bonebakker
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Jacob Helweg (1798-1875), silversmith in Amsterdam between 1822 and 1864 with the maker's mark; JH under a basket in a square and H next to a basket in a rectangle with cut corners. Jacob was a son of the silversmith Roelof Helweg (1758-1843). Jacob probable learned the trade of silversmith by master silversmith Jacob Hendrik Stellingwerff. Jacob Helweg made all kinds of objects, both great work, as little work, cutlery and serving spoons and created all kinds of silver frames for glass and porcelain.
Jacob Helweg worked for the firm's Bonebakker, Bennewitz & Sons, Benten & Weddelink.
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Jacob Helweg (A. Bonebakker & Zoon)

Jacobus Carrenhoff Amsterdam registered 1791-1838
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P. Las van Bennekom Amsterdam registered 1814-1831
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Bennewitz & Sons, Amsterdam

Diederick Lodewijk Bennewitz (1764-1826) was born in Rinteln (near Hanover) in 1764 as the son of the master swordsman (sword maker) Johann Ludewich Bennewitz (1734-1789) and Maria Margaretha Wingendorff (1727-1812). Bennewitz moved from Germany to Amsterdam where he started working for Cornelis Leonard Diemont. After two years, he completed his apprenticeship, did his master test and became a registered silversmith in 1785. Registered maker's mark; Image
During the Kingdom of Holland 1807-1812 registered maker's mark: Image
In the same year 1785 he married Dorothea Korff (1765-1842) in Amsterdam. At the time of his marriage in 1785 he lived on the Nieuwe Zijds Achterburgwal. He died in his house Reguliersgracht 845 in 1826. Diederick Lodewijk Bennewitz built up an excellent reputation as a silversmith. Went several times to The Hague 1799-1807 to protest in the name of the Guild against the new law on the processing of gold and silver (in vain, the law was adopted on 11 March 1807).

In 1802, together with Adrianus Bonebakker, he took over the silver and jewellery shop from the deceased brothers Jacob and Jan Hendrik Peirolet. This shop was called Bennewitz & Bonebakker, where a lot of gold and silverware, gold jewelry and jewelery were sold. In addition, Bennewitz ran an extensive workshop in which gold work as well as large and small silverware was manufactured. After Bennewitz and Bonebakker had gone their separate ways in 1822, Bennewitz continued the combination of workshop and shop under the name Bennewitz en Zonen.

Bennewitz & Bonebakker
Within the firm of Bennewitz and Bonebakker, Bennewitz was in charge of the workshop. Bonebakker took care of the business side.Prestigious assignments during this period included, for example, the ones commissioned by the City of Amsterdam to produce the so-called city keys. In 1806 the French occupied the Netherlands. King Louis (Lodewijk) Napoleon was presented with these ceremonial keys when he entered the city.

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These keys to the City of Amsterdam were produced in 1806 to be offered to King Lodewijk Napoleon as he entered the city. Circumstances dictated this didn’t actually happen until 1808. A second set of keys to Amsterdam were produced in 1811 and handed to Napoleon Bonaparte on 9th October of that year. Both sets were made by Bennewitz. The second set wasn’t paid for by Amsterdam until four years later. The same set of keys were used in 1813 during King Willem I’s entry. Willem I was the son of the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. After an agreement with Napoleon, he became the ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806, when he was deposed by Napoleon. In November 1813, after the Defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig, he was asked to become the Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands on 16 March 1815. On 9 June of the same year, William I also became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and in 1839 he became the Duke of Limburg.

In 1816 the company was commissioned by the city of Amsterdam to manufacture the wedding gift to Prince Willem (later King Willem II) and Anna Pavlovna. This gift consisted of a 419-piece table service, an important part of which is now in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.
Bennewitz & Sons
After Bennewitz and Bonebakker separated in 1821, Bennewitz continued his activities under the name of Bennewitz & Zonen. Bonebakker continued his company under the name As Bonebakker & Zoon. After Bennewitz's death in 1826, his widow continued the business, which also involved her son George Bennewitz and her son-in-law Anthonie Knottenbelt. Other sons of Bennewitz, Dirk Lodewijk Jr., Jacobus and Pieter, who were also silversmiths, had already died. Bennewitz was father of four sons Jacobus, Pieter, George and Dirk Lodewijk. Three of them drowned in 1822, only George survived and - after his father's death in 1826 - continued the business with his mother.
When George died in 1838, the widow continued the business with her son-in-law Anthonie Knottenbelt. When he died in 1841, the company was taken over by Johannes (Jan) Wouterus Benten (1781-1851) who continued it under this name until 1851, next to a shop in his own name. Benten's sons Roghier Diederik (1819-1862) and Jan (1812-1853) were partners of Benten & Zonen in 1847 together with their father.
Much of Bennewitz's work is in the museum collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


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Pair of silver candelabra, Bennewitz & Zonen, Amsterdam, 1839
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Essayeur mark S1 (Jan Berend Schöne Jr., Amsterdam)
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Tobacco jar year letter for 1828.

The marks used by Firm Bennewitz during the years:
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• Souce; RKD, Wikipedia, Catawiki, Netherlands Responsibility marks from 1797 WaarborgHolland, Gouda, Barend J. van Benthem De werkmeesters van Bennewitz en Bonebakker: Amsterdams grootzilver uit de eerste helft van de 19de eeuw ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-9040090097 and many other internet sources, copy/paste/translate

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Paulus van der Beek & sons two generations of silversmiths

Post by oel »

Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek,his sons Arnoldus Paulus van der Beek and Allert Paulus van der Beek, two generations of silversmiths.
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Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek, born in Sneek 04-10-1829, Paulus Arnoldus van der Beek starts in Wijk 1 at Oosterdijk no. 64 in Sneek as a silversmith's servant. On June 23, 1854 he registered his own silversmith's marks, a large and a small one: VDB with a compass (drawing tool). Five days later, June 28, 1854, Paulus moves from Sneek to the city of Workum.
On 1 July 1854, Paulus Arnoldus' van der Beek married Jantje Louws Bergsma from Makkum, daughter of Louw Yedes Bergsma, carpenter in Makkum, and Riemke Jans de Vries. According to the marriage certificate, Paulus is a silversmith in Sneek. On 05-11-1855 their son Arnoldus is born in Workum. Jantje Bergsma died in Amsterdam on 7 May 1861.
On May 21, 1864, Paulus van der Beek (gold and silversmith in Workum) remarried Catrine van der Meer, who lives in Pingjum, daughter of Aldert Durks van der Meer and Foekje Gerrits Hollander. Catrine was born in Bolsward. On 26-04-1865 the 2nd son Aldert was born in Workum.
On December 10, 1872, Paulus van der Beek bought a house in Franeker (Godsacker 36) for NLG(Fl) 2,100 from the merchant Gelke Boskase.
On April 27, 1880, Paulus van der Beek and Catharina van der Meer, due to a lack of work in Franeker, moved with their family to The Hague where they settled at 34 Hooge Westeinde.
In The Hague, Paulus van der Beek makes many forgeries. That happened more often in those days, but Paulus and later his son were one of the best.


http://www.warkumserfskip.nl/id470.htm

On August 31, 1909, Paulus van der Beek died in The Hague at the age of 79. His profession is still: silversmith.
His son Arnoldus, born 05-11-1855, silversmith since 1891, works during 1891/1893 in The Hague with his stepbrother Aldert, born 26-04-1865 and silversmith since 1889.
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In 1893 Arnoldus continued independently with his own gold and silversmith shop in The Hague.
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According Waarborg AVB1 in monogram ( I believe it to be a variation of AB1)
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In 1923 Arnoldus van der Beek stops and hands over his marks to Hendrik Poelman. On May 13, 1932, aged 76, Arnoldus died in Leidschendam-Voorburg. Like father like son Arnoldus also made very good forgeries. see: https://www.925-1000.com/forum/viewtopi ... 48#p184676

Aldert van der Beek, worked until 1898 as a silversmith and died in 1918 in Delft, age 53 and profession coffee house owner.
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Source:
Waarborgholland, ˜Netherlands' Responsibility Marks since 1797
http://www.warkumserfskip.nl/id470.htm
https://haagsgemeentearchief.nl/
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Re: Dutch silver original maker's mark project

Post by oel »

The Hague silversmiths; Arnoldus van der Beek and Hendrik Poelman

Master mark AB1 in rectangle. See below extract Dutch responsibility marks; Waarborgholland, Netherlands Responsibility Marks since 1797
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According to the above information the mark AB1, these marks were used by Hendrik Poelman previously(v/h=voorheen) Arnoldus van der Beek from 1923 to 1925. However, I have come across this maker’s mark AB1 on candlesticks in the neoclassical style with the year letter 1902, 1905 and 1899 and with the office mark or Minerva head with regional assay office letter C for The Hague.
Below the mark AVB1(in monogram) in square for Arnoldus van der Beek/Hendrik Poelman
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Hendrik Poelman v/h Arnoldus van der Beek.
According to Waarborg Gouda, Arnoldus van der Beek/Hendrik Poelman used the maker’s mark AVB1 in monogram, registered 1893-1923. In 1923 Arnoldus van der Beek handed over the business to Hendrik Poelman, age 26.

Facts; Hendrik Poelman was born in 1896 or in 1897. Hendrik, age 28, married in 1925 and in 1925, registered his own maker’s marks; HP with 5 pointed and 6 pointed star. On 23-09-1964 Hendrik Poelman died at the age of 67 in The Hague.

It seems to me, in view of the year letters, and the birth date of Hendrik Poelman. That Arnoldus van der Beek, as of 1893, used both maker’s marks AB1 and the maker’s mark AVB1(monogram/conjoined). In 1923 these maker’s mark AB1 may have been transferred to Hendrik Poelman (age 26). The registration date for these maker’s mark AB1 entered by Waarborg Gouda for 1923 is not correct and should be for Arnoldus van der Beek, registered 1893-1923. Not for Hendrik Poelman.

A set of four Dutch .833 silver candlesticks. One pair with the Hague office mark and year letter gothic V for 1905, maker's mark AB1 ( i n rectangle) and one pair with the Hague office mark and year letter gothic S for 1902, maker’s mark AB1 ( in rectangle).
In the 17th century style, handmade/forced & raised twisted shank on a round foot, with relief decoration of flowers and acanthus leaves, embossed and chased with flowers and foliage in the baroque manner. 7.25" (18.4cm) high, 5" (12.7cm) diameter. Base filled with putty. Weight pair made 1905 is 600 gram+621 gram and pair made 1902 weight is 625 gram+584 gram.
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Gothic S for 1902
Gothic V for 1905 below
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Standard mark .833 and assay office mark/Minerva head regional assay office letter C for The Hague
The maker's marks on the candle sticks
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After 17th century example see Beelings Nederlands zilver 1600-1813
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Set of Dutch 833 silver candlesticks, handmade/forced parts and using the old moulds, cast garlands, Louis XVI style/Classicism, arched base with raised and chased motifs, fluted column shape, maker’s mark AB1, year letter Gothic P for 1899, assay office mark/ Minerva head with letter C for The Hague, 2nd grade silver. Height 15 cm, diameter round foot diameter 8.6 cm. Weight without the wooden base shim; 179 grams and 186 grams together 365 grams.

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Paulus van der Beek and his son Arnoldus van der Beek's Atelier in The Hague are known users of imitation marks. Paulus placed the imitation marks innocently next to the real silver marks. His son Arnoldus van der Beek made smooth silverware on which he only placed false marks. These beautifully made biscuit tins, sugar casters, candlesticks and bread baskets are a lot more difficult to distinguish from the 'real' antique pieces. Arnoldus' pieces betray themselves because he often used the same combination of false marks. The successor of Arnoldus van der Beek, Hendrik Poelman also made beautiful silverware.
https://www.kunstmuseum.nl/nl/collectie/potdeksel
https://www.kunstmuseum.nl/nl/collectie ... en-montuur

Peter

Source;
WaarborgHolland
Beelings Nederlands zilver 1600-1813

https://haagsgemeentearchief.nl/
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